2020-1
on Constitutional Case-Law

The electronic Bulletin on Constitutional Case-Law ("e-Bulletin") is produced by the European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission. The e-Bulletin regularly reports on the case-law of constitutional courts and courts with equivalent jurisdiction in Europe and beyond, including case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The e-Bulletin is sent to liaison officers and to subscribers by e-mail three times a year, each mailing reports on the most important case-law gathered during a four-month period.

The e-Bulletin’s aim is to allow judges and constitutional law specialists to be informed quickly about the most important judgments rendered in the field of constitutional justice. The exchange of information and ideas among courts in different countries with similar or different legal traditions, in the field of judge-made law, is of vital importance. Such an exchange of information and such cooperation, we hope, will not only benefit the newly established constitutional courts, but will also enrich the case-law of longer established courts. The main purpose of the e-Bulletin on Constitutional Case-Law is to foster an exchange of information and ideas and to assist national judges in solving difficult questions of law, which often arise simultaneously in courts of different countries.

If you wish to receive the e-Bulletin, please subscribe at the page https://www.venice.coe.int/files/bulletin/eBulletin-subscription.html.

The Venice Commission is grateful to the liaison officers of constitutional and equivalent courts, who regularly prepare the contributions, reproduced in the Bulletin with links to our database CODICES. As such, the summaries of decisions and opinions in the Bulletin do not constitute an official record of court decisions and should not be considered as offering or purporting to offer an authoritative interpretation of the law.

The Venice Commission would like to thank the International Organisation of the Francophonie for their support in ensuring that contributions from its member, associate and observer states can be translated into French.

T. Gerwien
Legal Officer, Division on Constitutional Justice
European Commission for Democracy through Law (“Venice Commission”)
September 2020

e-Bulletin 2020-1

A. List of précis by country

B. Systematic Thesaurus

C. Alphabetical Index

A. List of précis by country
Argentina Austria Azerbaijan Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil Canada Chile Council of Europe
Croatia Czech Republic European Union France
Germany Italy Kazakhstan Korea, Republic
Kosovo Liechtenstein Lithuania Mexico
The Netherlands Norway North Macedonia Russia
Serbia Slovenia Switzerland Sweden
Ukraine

ARGENTINA

ARG-2020-1-001 a) Argentina / b) Supreme Court / c) / d) 24.04.2020 / e) CSJ 353/2020/CS1 / f) Fernández de Kirchner, Cristina en carácter de Presidenta del Honorable Senado de la Nación s/ acción declarativa de certeza /
The Judiciary can only review the legislative procedure, its compliance with the requirements for the creation of laws and its accordance with the legal order once the law has been enacted, but not before. Besides, it has not been granted the authority to analyse the constitutionality of regulations, to deliver abstract interpretations, or to issue merely theoretical or consultative rulings. The... Read more
1.2.1.1 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Head of State.
1.3.5.9 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Parliamentary rules.
1.5.3 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Form.
4.5.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers.
4.5.2.1 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Competences with respect to international agreements.
4.5.2.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Powers of enquiry.
4.5.2.3 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Delegation to another legislative body.
4.5.6 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Law-making procedure.
COVID-19 / Parliament, virtual sessions.

AUSTRIA

AUT-2020-1-001 a) Austria / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 10.03.2020 / e) G 228-233/2019-12 / f) /
The public holiday on Good Friday was abolished in Austria. Good Friday had formerly been a paid public holiday for members of certain churches. These churches have no right to maintain a specific public holiday. Although the specific selection of public holidays may initially have had religious reasons, holidays today mainly pursue goals of personal rest and relaxation. Therefore, the abolition... Read more
3.7 General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.
5.3.20 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of worship.
Secularism, religious holidays.

AZERBAIJAN

AZE-2020-1-001 a) Azerbaijan / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenum / d) 08.01.2020 / e) / f) Interpretation of Article 142 of the Criminal Procedure Code /
Res judicata provides an exemption from the need to prove the circumstances of a case where they were the subject of proof in, and had been established by, a prior court decision. The effect of such an enforceable court decision is limited to those persons against whom the decision was made. From the standpoint of the requirements of Articles 60.I; 63 and 127.VIII of the Constitution, the... Read more
5.3.13.22 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Presumption of innocence.
Res judicata, scope / Res judicata, intra-sectoral / Res judicata, intersectoral.

AZE-2020-1-002 a) Azerbaijan / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenum / d) 21.01.2020 / e) / f) On verification of Conformity of the Decision of the Administrative-Economic Chamber of the Supreme Court, 10 July 2018, with the Constitution and laws upon appeal of Ms. Eyubova /
The right to social security, which is a fundamental social and economic right, is enshrined in Article 38 of the Constitution. According to Article 38.I of the Constitution, everyone has the right to social security. According to Article 28.III of the Constitution, the right to social security also includes the right to receive a pension in specific instances and within the limits established by... Read more
5.3.13.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.
5.3.39 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property.
Protection, judicial / Social security.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

BIH-2020-1-001 a) Bosnia and Herzegovina / b) Constitutional Court / c) Chamber / d) 22.02.2020 / e) AP 1217/20 / f) /
The Constitutional Court must consider the balance between the needs and protection of society as a whole and the rights of individuals. To be proportional, measures that significantly interfere with the human rights guaranteed under the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights must have a basis, be strictly limited in time, include an obligation to regularly review the measures... Read more
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.22 General Principles - Prohibition of arbitrariness.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4.2 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - General/special clause of limitation.
5.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - Subsequent review of limitation.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.44 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.
Circumstance, exceptional / COVID-19 / Person, elderly / Children, special needs, mental and physical condition / Protection of the existent health system.

BRAZIL

BRA-2020-1-001 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 15.08.2018 / e) Extraordinary Appeal 670422 (RE 670422) / f) Alteration of the civil birth certificate of transgender persons /
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.3.43 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to self fulfilment.
5.3.45 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Protection of minorities and persons belonging to minorities.
Birth, registration / Gender reassignment, legal conditions / Gender, change, recognition.

BRA-2020-1-002 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 28.11.2019 / e) Extraordinary Appeal 1055941 (RE 1055941) / f) Tax and banking information shared without previous judicial authorisation /
Reports from the Financial Intelligence Unit (hereinafter, "UIF", in the Portuguese acronym) and the Federal Revenue Service (hereinafter, "RFB", in the Portuguese acronym) inspection process may be shared with criminal prosecution bodies for the purpose of criminal proceedings, without prior judicial authorisation; this is in line with the Constitution. The confidentiality of the information... Read more
4.6.6 Institutions - Executive bodies - Relations with judicial bodies.
5.1.4.2 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - General/special clause of limitation.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.3.42 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights in respect of taxation.
Bank account, tax inspection, disclosure / Banking secrecy, lifting, fraud, evidence / Confidentiality, proceedings, definition, requirement.

BRA-2020-1-003 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 04.03.2020 / e) Extraordinary Appeal 1096029 (RE 1096029) / f) New elections are needed if the elected candidate has his candidacy registration rejected /
A candidate who attains second place in majority elections cannot take office if the candidate who wins the first place has the registration of their candidacy rejected by judicial decision. Fresh elections will be necessary.
4.8.3 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Municipalities.
4.9 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy.
5.3.41.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Right to stand for election.
5.3.41.5 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Direct / indirect ballot.
Election, invalidity.

BRA-2020-1-004 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 15.04.2020 / e) Referral of provisional remedy in Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6341 (ADI 6341) / f) Competences of the federal entities to fight coronavirus /
The head of the federal executive branch has power to issue decrees establishing which public services and activities are considered essential. This does not encroach on the powers the federal entities share to legislate on health matters, provided the decree safeguards the autonomy of the states, the municipalities, and the Federal District.
3.6.3 General Principles - Structure of the State - Federal State.
4.4.3 Institutions - Head of State - Powers.
4.8.1 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.
Health protection, system / Legislative competence, shared, limits / Decree, presidential, validity.

BRA-2020-1-005 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 17.04.2020 / e) Referral of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6363 (ADI 6363 Ref-MC) / f) Labour measures to preserve jobs and income in the face of public calamity /
A rule by the executive branch authorising the reduction of working hours and salary or the temporary suspension of employment contracts by individual agreement due to the new coronavirus pandemic, regardless of union consent, is constitutional.
1.2.2.5 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Trade unions.
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.2.1.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Employment.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.11 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Freedom of trade unions.
5.4.17 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.
Economic and financial crisis, policy, measure / Economy, state intervention / Emergency legislation, approval / Labour rights, restrictions, requirements / Salary, reduction, compensation.

BRA-2020-1-006 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 29.04.2020 / e) Referral of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6342 (ADI 6342 Ref-MC) / f) Competences of the federal entities to fight coronavirus /
A provisional presidential decree that relaxes labour rights during the public health emergency caused by the new corona virus is constitutional.
3.25 General Principles - Market economy.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.17 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.
Enterprise, small and medium-sized / Employment, preservation, pandemic.

BRA-2020-1-007 a) Brazil / b) Federal Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 30.04.2020 / e) Referral of the provisional remedy in the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 6351 (ADI 6351 Ref-MC) / f) Restrictive measures imposed on access to information law during the new coronavirus pandemic /
Changes to the law governing requests for access to information during the pandemic were in line with the Constitution.
3.3 General Principles - Democracy.
5.3.24 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.
5.3.25 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency.
Information, access, limit / Information, access, denial / Information, access, reasonable / Information, disclosure / Information, duty to provide / Information, reasonable access.

BRA-2020-1-008 a) Brazil / b) Supreme Court / c) Full Court / d) 05.08.2020 / e) ADPF 709 Ref-MC / f) Protection of indigenous people against Covid-19 /
The Constitution grants professional associations the right to file claims directly before the Federal Supreme Court. The definition of professional associations shall be understood as a group of people who perform the same economic and professional activity, or also, who are members of associations that advocate for the interests of vulnerable and/or minority groups. The latter must be included... Read more
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
Indigenous people, protection, COVID-19.

CANADA

CAN-2020-1-001 a) Canada / b) Supreme Court / c) / d) 20.03.2020 / e) 38532 / f) R. v. K.G.K. /
Under Section 11.b of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, "[a]ny person charged with an offence has the right to be tried within a reasonable time". Although the right to be tried within a reasonable time enshrined in Section 11.b extends beyond the end of the evidence and argument at trial and encompasses verdict deliberation time, the presumptive ceilings established by the Court in... Read more
5.3.13.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Trial/decision within reasonable time.
Charter of rights and freedoms, right to be tried within reasonable time / Verdict, deliberation time.

CHILE

CHI-2020-1-001 a) Chile / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.11.2019 / e) 6597-19 / f) /
A prohibition for ophthalmologists and optometrists to attend at optical shops is a breach the right to equality.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.25 General Principles - Market economy.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.6 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Prohibition, optical shop, optometrist, ophthalmologist, shop attendance / Conflict of interest, healthcare, economic activity, sale of goods.

CHI-2020-1-002 a) Chile / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 12.03.2020 / e) 7626-19 / f) /
A two-year ban on contracting with the State as a consequence of a conviction for a breach of fundamental rights of workers and anti-union activities is unconstitutional.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.11 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Freedom of trade unions.
Worker’s rights, union, anti-union activities, breach, employer / Equality, proportionality, due process, breach.

CHI-2020-1-003 a) Chile / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 16.04.2020 / e) 8574-20 / f) /
The Constitutional Court held that making a differentiation based on the criminal offence of a convict, for the purposes of receiving a pardon, is not unconstitutional.
5.1.1 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights.
5.1.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.2.2.7 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Age.
5.3.5 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty.
5.3.15 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of victims of crime.
5.3.19 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of opinion.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
COVID-19, pandemic / Pardon, power to grant, acting President / Pardon, restriction.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE

ECH-2020-1-001 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Chamber / d) 14.01.2020 / e) 41288/15 / f) Beizaras and Levickas v. Lithuania /
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.13.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Sexual orientation, incitement to hatred and violence, national authorities, duty to investigate / Discrimination, sexual orientation by national authorities / Family tradition, values, social acceptance of homosexuality.

ECH-2020-1-002 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Grand Chamber / d) 20.01.2020 / e) 201/17 / f) Magyar Kétfarkú Kutya Párt v. Hungary [GC] /
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
Election, referendum, voters, forum, mobile, application, share opinions and convey political message / Law, lack of clarity, vagueness.

ECH-2020-1-003 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Chamber / d) 30.01.2020 / e) 50001/12 / f) Breyer v. Germany /
5.3.23 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights in respect of the audiovisual media and other means of mass communication.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Personal data, storage, access / Personal data, storage, prepaid mobile phone SIM-card / Personal data, storage, crime prevention.

ECH-2020-1-004 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Chamber / d) 11.02.2020 / e) 56867/15 / f) Buturuga v. Romania /
5.3.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Prohibition of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
5.3.34 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to marriage.
Cyberbullying, violence against women and girls / Cyber violation of privacy, domestic violence / Cybersurveillance, domestic violence, partner.

ECH-2020-1-005 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Chamber / d) 11.02.2020 / e) 526/18 / f) Platini v. Switzerland (dec.) /
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
5.3.31 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to respect for one's honour and reputation.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
Sport, professional, suspension, disciplinary.

ECH-2020-1-006 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Grand Chamber / d) 13.02.2020 / e) 8675/15 and 8697/15 / f) N.D. and N.T. v. Spain /
5.3.11 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right of asylum.
5.3.13.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.
Migrant, asylum-seeker, refusal of admission / Migrants, asylum-seekers, expulsion / Migrants, asylum-seekers, land border, immediate and forceable return / Prohibition of refoulement, status of refugees / Conduct, person crossing border, unauthorised manner, en masse using force.

ECH-2020-1-007 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Chamber / d) 13.02.2020 / e) 25137/16 / f) Sanofi Pasteur v. France /
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
5.3.4 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to physical and psychological integrity.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
5.3.13.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
Individual interest, conflict, margin of appreciation / Damages, claims, limitation period / Vaccination, resulting illness / Physical injury, compensation, date of stabilisation of illness.

ECH-2020-1-008 a) Council of Europe / b) European Court of Human Rights / c) Chamber / d) 10.03.2020 / e) 24816/14 and 25140/14 / f) Hudorovic and Others v. Slovenia /
5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Positive obligation of the state.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Water, safe to drink, access, adequate / Sanitation, access, adequate.

CROATIA

CRO-2020-1-001 a) Croatia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 29.01.2020 / e) U-I-144/2020 et al. / f) /
The omission of a certain group from certain provisions of the Foster Care Act (hereinafter, the "FCA") had a discriminatory impact on persons of same-sex orientation living in formal and informal life partnerships. Intervention by the Constitutional Court in the current content of the Act would not resolve this problem. The Foster Care Act overall pursues a legitimate aim, namely the protection... Read more
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.2.2.12 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Civil status.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
Foster care, providers, same sex life partners / Positive obligation, social welfare, children.

CZECH REPUBLIC

CZE-2020-1-001 a) Czech Republic / b) Constitutional Court / c) Plenum / d) 11.02.2020 / e) Pl. ÚS 4/17 / f) Act on the Conflict of Interests (Lex BabiŠ) /
In a democratic state governed by the rule of law, elections represent a properly conducted contest for trust and a mandate from voters, rather than for control of the State for the purpose of the use or abuse of its capacities and resources by the victors. The State is not an enterprise and the public service is remunerated. The performance of public office is not an enterprise either. It is... Read more
2.1.1.3 Sources - Categories - Written rules - Law of the European Union/EU Law.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
4.6.4.4 Institutions - Executive bodies - Composition - Status of members of executive bodies.
4.9.5 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Eligibility.
4.9.15 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Post-electoral procedures.
Public office, private interests, incompatibility.

CZE-2020-1-002 a) Czech Republic / b) Constitutional Court / c) Second Panel / d) 02.04.2020 / e) II. ÚS 2299/19 / f) Diplomatic guarantees to minimise the risk of torture or any other ill-treatment when extraditing to the People’s Republic of China /
If a foreign national under the threat of extradition can demonstrate serious grounds for their belief that they are in danger of being ill-treated, the public authority charged with making the decision on forced return must dispel any doubts as to whether the person concerned does face a real danger of ill-treatment in the country to which they are to be returned. If the public authority... Read more
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
5.3.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Prohibition of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment.
Extradition, safeguard / Extradition, receiving state, information / Extradition, assurance by receiving state.

EUROPEAN UNION

ECJ-2020-1-001 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 21.01.2020 / e) C-274/14 / f) Banco de Santander /
A request for a preliminary ruling made by the Tribunal Económico-Administrativo Central (Central Tax Tribunal, Spain) (hereinafter, the "referring body"), was inadmissible because that body did not satisfy the criterion of the independence required in order to be categorised as a ‘court or tribunal’ for the purposes of Article 267 TFEU.
4.7.4.1.2 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Appointment.
4.7.4.1.6 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Status.
4.17.2.1 Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between the EU and member states - Sincere co-operation between EU institutions and member States.
5.3.13.14 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Independence.
5.3.13.15 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Impartiality.
European Union, Court of Justice, submission procedure, preliminary ruling / Preliminary ruling, national courts / Judge, independence, autonomy, impartiality.

ECJ-2020-1-002 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 31.01.2020 / e) C-457/18 / f) Slovenia v. Croatia /
A Member State failed to fulfil its obligations under EU law, by not having complied with obligations stemming for the latter Member State from an arbitration agreement concluded with another Member State that was intended to resolve the border dispute between those two States and from an arbitration award defining the sea and land borders between the two States. Any obligation arising for each... Read more
2.1.1.4.10 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969.
4.17.2.1 Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between the EU and member states - Sincere co-operation between EU institutions and member States.
European Union, Court of Justice, competence / Court, competence / Border, national, definition / International law, general principles, effects in national law / Arbitration, court, decision, enforcement.

ECJ-2020-1-003 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 04.02.2020 / e) Joint cases C-515/17 P and C-561/17 P / f) University of Wroclaw and Poland c. Research Executive Agency /
The objective of the task of representation by a lawyer (referred to in Article 19 of the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union) is, above all, to protect and defend the principal’s interests to the greatest possible extent, acting in full independence and in line with the law and professional rules and codes of conduct. The concept of the independence of lawyers (in the specific... Read more
4.7.15.1.4 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Legal assistance and representation of parties - The Bar - Status of members of the Bar.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
5.3.13.27 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to counsel.
Remedy, effective / Legal representative, attorney / Lawyer, independence.

ECJ-2020-1-004 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 03.03.2020 / e) C-717/18 / f) X /
Article 2.2 of the Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States (OJ 2002 L 190, p. 1)) (hereinafter, the "Framework Decision") requires that, in order to ascertain whether the offence for which a European arrest warrant has been issued is punishable in the issuing Member State by a custodial sentence or a... Read more
5.3.5.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty.
5.3.13.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Criminal proceedings.
European Arrest Warrant, surrender procedures between Member States / Judicial authority, intervention, necessity / Double jeopardy.

ECJ-2020-1-005 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 26.03.2020 / e) Joint cases C-542/18 RX-II and C-543/18 RX-II / f) Réexamen Simpson/Council and HG/Commission /
Decisions handed down by the General Court of the European Union on appeal against decisions of the Civil Service Tribunal may, following a proposal by the First Advocate General, exceptionally be subject to review by the Court of Justice where there is a serious risk of the unity or consistency of EU law being affected. The review procedure is provided for in Article 256.2 TFEU and in Article 62... Read more
4.7.4.1.2 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Appointment.
5.3.13.14 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Independence.
5.3.13.15 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Impartiality.
Judge, appointment / Judge, dismissal.

ECJ-2020-1-006 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 26.03.2020 / e) Joint cases C-558/18 and C-563/18 / f) Miasto Lowicz and Prokurator Generalny /
The preliminary ruling sought must be ‘necessary’ to enable the referring court ‘to give judgment’. As interpreted by the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, a national court or tribunal is not empowered to bring a matter before the Court by way of a request for a preliminary ruling unless a case is pending before it in which it is called upon to give a decision which is... Read more
5.3.13.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.
European Union, Court of Justice / Court, jurisdiction / Border, national, definition / International law, general principles, effects in national law / Arbitration, court, decision, enforcement.

ECJ-2020-1-007 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 02.04.2020 / e) C-897/19/ f) Ruska Federacija PPU / f) /
Concerning the obligations of a Member State which is called upon to rule on an extradition request made by a third State concerning a national of a State that is not a member of the European Union but which is a member of the European Free Trade Association (hereinafter, "EFTA") and a party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area (hereinafter, "EEA"). The Court held that the requested... Read more
5.3.5.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
Extradition, proceedings / Extradition, guarantees / Extradition, assurance by receiving state / European Economic Area, Agreement.

ECJ-2020-1-008 a) European Union / b) Court of Justice of the European Union / c) Grand Chamber / d) 23.04.2020 / e) C-507/18 / f) Associazione Avvocatura per i diritti LGBTI /
Statements made by a person during an audio-visual programme, according to which that person would never recruit persons of a certain sexual orientation to that person’s undertaking or wish to use the services of such persons, fall within the material scope of Directive 2000/78 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (OJ 2000 L 303, p. 16) (hereinafter,... Read more
3.13 General Principles - Legality.
5.2.1.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Employment.
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
Discrimination, sexual orientation / Employment, working conditions / Employment, discrimination.

FRANCE

FRA-2020-1-001 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 31.01.2020 / e) 2019-823 QPC / f) Prohibition of the production, storage and movement of certain plant protection products /
The provisions prohibiting the production, storage and movement in France of plant protection products containing active ingredients (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides or acaricides) that have not been approved by the European Union owing to their effects on human health, animal health or the environment are upheld as constitutional. Specifically, the restriction imposed by the impugned... Read more
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
5.4.6 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
5.5.1 Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Right to the environment.
Freedom to trade, restriction / Freedom of enterprise, restriction / Environment, right to the protection of a healthy environment.

FRA-2020-1-002 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 07.02.2020 / e) 2019-826 QPC / f) Mr Justin A. (placement for the purpose of adoption of a child given birth to anonymously) /
The provisions according to which a child who has not been recognised by its parents may only be placed for the purpose of adoption upon expiry of a time limit of two months after being taken into care and that prevent any declaration of parentage or any recognition after placement for the purpose of adoption are constitutional. They do not violate the requirement of protecting the best interests... Read more
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
5.2.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Adoption, consent, natural father / Adoption, child, best interests / Adoption, right, discrimination.

FRA-2020-1-003 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 28.02.2020 / e) 2019-827 QPC / f) Mr Gérard F. (Conditions governing the admissibility of a request for the judicial rehabilitation of a person who has been sentenced to death) /
The provisions concerning the five-year probationary period which is applicable to the submission of an application for the judicial rehabilitation of a person who has been convicted of a criminal offence do not violate the principle of equality before the law and before the courts or the principle that punishment must be proportionate. They are therefore constitutional. However, the... Read more
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
Rehabilitation, judicial, convicted person, reclassification.

FRA-2020-1-004 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 28.02.2020 / e) 2019-828/829 QPC / f) Mr Raphaël S. and another (Deposition not under oath by the spouse of the accused person) /
The provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure governing the conduct of depositions by witnesses before the Assize Court, which limit the exemption from the obligation to swear an oath to the husband or wife of the accused person, are unconstitutional. The Constitutional Council considers that cohabitees or persons who have entered into a "civil partnership" are no less exposed than spouses to... Read more
4.7.2 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Procedure.
4.7.8.2 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Ordinary courts - Criminal courts.
5.2.2.12 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Civil status.
Witness testimony, preliminary procedure, submission of evidence at trial / Criminal procedure, witness testimony.

FRA-2020-1-005 a) France / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 03.04.2020 / e) 2020-834 QPC / f) Union nationale des étudiants de France (National Union of Students of France) (Communicability and public disclosure of the algorithms employed by higher education establishments when examining applications to study at undergraduate level) /
The provisions of the Code of Education that prevent both candidates and third parties from accessing the algorithms that may be used in order to select candidates for entry to initial undergraduate education at a public higher education establishment, as adopted on the IT platform known as "Parcoursup", are constitutional. In enacting this legislation, the legislature ensured the independence... Read more
5.3.24 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.
5.3.25.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency - Right of access to administrative documents.
5.4.2 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to education.
Administration, information, access, reasonable / Education, higher, access / Document, administrative, access, right / Education, higher, access, condition.

GERMANY

GER-2020-1-001 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Third Chamber of the First Panel / d) 10.01.2020 / e) 1 BvR 4/17 / f) Act on collective agreements /
While the legislator may allow for collective agreements to be declared generally binding beyond the parties by the government, no such right can be derived from the constitutional guarantee of freedom of labour coalitions under the Basic Law.
5.4.11 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Freedom of trade unions.
Collective agreement, generally binding / Collective bargaining, right.

GER-2020-1-002 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Panel / d) 14.01.2020 / e) 2 BvR 1333/17 / f) Ban on wearing a headscarf III (legal trainees) /
1. When performing duties where they are or could be perceived as representatives of the state, legal trainees have been obligated [by the Land Hesse] not to allow their affiliation with a religious community to become visible through observing a religious dress code. This obligation interferes with the freedom of faith of the individual guaranteed in Article 4.1 and 4.2 of the Basic... Read more
3.7 General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
5.2.2.6 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Religion.
5.3.18 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of conscience.
Freedom of training / Legal trainee, wearing a headscarf / Religion, clothing, restriction / Religion, freedom, negative / Religion, freedom, positive / Religion, headscarf, symbol / Religion and ideology, neutrality of the state.

GER-2020-1-003 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Chamber of the Second Panel / d) 30.01.2020 / e) 2 BvR 1005/18 / f) Guide dog ban /
1. When interpreting the relevant provisions of the General Act on Equal Treatment, the scope of the right to equality and the fact that it permeates into private law must be considered. The Higher Regional Court did not do this to the required degree, as it did not find that the seemingly neutral ban on taking dogs into a clinic places the applicant at least at an indirect disadvantage. 2. The... Read more
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
5.2.2.8 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Physical or mental disability.
Disability, assistance, guide dogs / Personal mobility.

GER-2020-1-004 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Panel / d) 13.02.2020 / e) 2 BvR 739/17 / f) Unified Patent Court /
1.The protection afforded by the first sentence of Article 38.1 of the Basic Law extends to ensuring that the requirements for an effective transfer of sovereign powers laid down in Article 23.1 of the Basic Law are observed. In order to safeguard their democratic influence on the process of European integration, citizens are afforded a right that, in principle, sovereign powers be... Read more
3.1 General Principles - Sovereignty.
3.3.1 General Principles - Democracy - Representative democracy.
4.5.2.1 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Competences with respect to international agreements.
4.5.6.3 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Law-making procedure - Majority required.
5.3.41 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights.
5.5.4 Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Right to self-determination.
Sovereign powers, conferral, review / International treaty, act of approval.

GER-2020-1-005 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Panel / d) 26.02.2020 / e) 2 BvR 2347/15, 2 BvR 651, 1261, 1593, 2354, 2527/16 / f) Assisted suicide services /
1.a. As an expression of personal autonomy, the general right of personality (Article 2.1 in conjunction with Article 1.1 of the Basic Law) encompasses a right to a self-determined death. b. The right to a self-determined death includes the freedom to take one’s own life. Where an individual decides to end their own life, having reached this decision based on how they personally define quality... Read more
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.43 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to self fulfilment.
Death, self-determined, right / Personality, general right / Personal autonomy / Suicide, assistance, criminal offence / Suicide, assisted, service.

GER-2020-1-006 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Third Chamber of the First Panel / d) 10.03.2020 / e) 1 BvQ 15/20 / f) Rent cap /
1. It is not sufficiently evident that the disadvantages suffered by landlords, if the challenged provisions provisionally continue to be applicable, outweigh the disadvantages to the effectiveness of the Act as a whole in which they are set out that would result from provisionally suspending the authorisation to impose administrative fines. 2. The Act incorporates criteria with which landlords... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
5.3.39.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property - Other limitations.
Fine, administrative / Fine, administrative sanction / Preliminary injunction / Rent, pricing, regulation.

GER-2020-1-007 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Third Chamber of the First Panel / d) 07.04.2020 / e) 1 BvR 755/20 / f) Measures against the spread of coronavirus /
1. Lodging a constitutional complaint or an application for a preliminary injunction does not violate the principle of subsidiarity where first seeking legal protection before the ordinary courts has no prospect of success, as the courts have already refused to grant preliminary injunctions in other proceedings. 2. A valid legal provision can, in the course of preliminary injunction proceedings,... Read more
1.5.4.7 Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
COVID-19 / Legal provisions, suspension.

GER-2020-1-008 a) Germany / b) Federal Constitutional Court / c) Second Panel / d) 05.05.2020 / e) 2 BvR 859/15, 2 BvR 1651/15, 2 BvR 2006/15, 2 BvR 980/16 / f) Expanded Asset Purchase Programme of the European Central Bank /
1. Where an ultra vires review or an identity review raises questions regarding the validity or the interpretation of a measure taken by institutions, bodies, offices and agencies of the European Union, the Federal Constitutional Court, in principle, bases its review on the understanding and the assessment of such a measure as put forward by the Court of Justice of the European Union... Read more
2.1.1.3 Sources - Categories - Written rules - Law of the European Union/EU Law.
2.2.1.6 Sources - Hierarchy - Hierarchy as between national and non-national sources - Law of the European Union/EU Law and domestic law.
3.1 General Principles - Sovereignty.
3.3.1 General Principles - Democracy - Representative democracy.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.26 General Principles - Fundamental principles of the Internal Market.
4.7.6 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Relations with bodies of international jurisdiction.
4.10 Institutions - Public finances.
4.17.1.5 Institutions - European Union - Institutional structure - Court of Justice of the European Union.
4.17.1.6 Institutions - European Union - Institutional structure - European Central Bank.
4.17.2 Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between the EU and member states.
4.17.3 Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between institutions of the EU.
Assets, financial, purchase / Constitution, identity / Conferral, principle of / European Central Bank, mandate / European integration, agenda / European Union, Court of Justice, democratic legitimation / European Union, Court of Justice, judicial mandate / European Union act, ultra vires, review / Government bonds, purchase / Competences, exceeding / Integration, responsibility / Monetary financing, prohibition / Monetary policy / Risk sharing, Eurosystem.

ITALY

ITA-2020-1-001 a) Italy / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 23.10.2019 / e) 221/2019 / f) /
Allowing homosexual couples to access medically assisted procreation (hereinafter, "MAP") techniques, would require the direct repudiation of both the guiding ideas that underlie the system outlined by the legislator in 2004, i.e. the understanding of MAP as a "therapeutic" remedy for human sterility or infertility that is caused by a pathology and is not curable by other means, and the will to... Read more
2.1.1.1.1 Sources - Categories - Written rules - National rules - Constitution.
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.19 General Principles - Margin of appreciation.
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
5.2.2.1 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Gender.
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Homosexual, couple / Medically assisted procreation.

ITA-2020-1-002 a) Italy / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 15.11.2019 / e) 237/2019 / f) /
A child’s parentage following the recourse to medically assisted procreation (MAP) techniques, is also related to the "consent" provided, and the "responsibility" jointly taken on, by the two people who decided to access that reproductive technique. However, this is always subject to the prerequisite that the prospective parents constitute an "opposite sex" couple. At present, Italian law does... Read more
2.1.1.1.1 Sources - Categories - Written rules - National rules - Constitution.
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
3.19 General Principles - Margin of appreciation.
5.2.2.1 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Gender.
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Homosexual, couple / Medically assisted procreation / Birth certificate to a foreign national issued by a Civil registry official.

ITA-2020-1-003 a) Italy / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 22.11.2019 / e) 242/2019 / f) /
Article 580 of the Criminal Code is unconstitutional, insofar as it does not exclude punishment for those who facilitate the fulfilment of the independently and freely formed intent to commit suicide by a person fully capable of making free and informed decisions kept alive by life-support treatments and suffering from an incurable illness which is a source of physical or psychological suffering... Read more
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.19 General Principles - Margin of appreciation.
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
5.3.5 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty.
5.4.19 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.
Suicide, assisted.

ITA-2020-1-004 a) Italy / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 04.12.2019 / e) 253/2019 / f) /
It is not unreasonable to presume that convicted persons who do not cooperate will maintain links with the criminal organisation to which they originally belonged, provided that this presumption is envisaged as rebuttable and not absolute. A regime based on an absolute presumption of current links with organised crime falls foul of Article 3 of the Constitution (equality) and Article 27.3 of the... Read more
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
3.21 General Principles - Equality.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.3.5.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty.
Life sentence, crimes related to criminal organisations / Release, short, bonus periods.

ITA-2020-1-005 a) Italy / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 05.12.2019 / e) 254/2019 / f) /
In regulating places of worship, as part of the law on land management, the regions are permitted to pursue ends that are exclusively related to urban planning, as a part of which they must also give the required, specific consideration to the allocation needs of religious facilities. Moreover, due to the special constitutional status of freedom of worship, these urban planning/building... Read more
3.7 General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.
4.8 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government.
5.2.2.6 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Religion.
5.3.20 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of worship.
Urban planning / Facility, religious.

ITA-2020-1-006 a) Italy / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.02.2020 / e) 18/2020 / f) /
The limit of ten years of age provided for under the provisions on special house arrest laid down in Article 47-quinquies of the Provisions regulating the prison system is unconstitutional insofar as it does not apply to incarcerated mothers with severely disabled children of any age. An alternative measure to detention, such as that provided for under the contested provision the... Read more
2.1.1.1.1 Sources - Categories - Written rules - National rules - Constitution.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
5.1.1.4.2 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Incapacitated.
5.2.2.8 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Physical or mental disability.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.5.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Mother, imprisoned / Child, disabled.

KAZAKHSTAN

KAZ-2020-1-001 a) Kazakhstan / b) Constitutional Council / c) / d) 21.01.2020 / e) 1 / f) /
The Constitutional Council found a provision of the law on housing relations to be unconstitutional. The Constitutional Council believes that, in general, the possibility of evicting persons from state-rented housing is one of the ways to prevent the unreasonable use of state housing guarantees by tenants. However, such a decision should not be made based on the fact of acquiring ownership of... Read more
5.4.13 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to housing.
Social state / Limitation of right, justification / Judicial protection / Housing, deprivation.

KOREA, REPUBLIC

KOR-2020-1-001 a) Korea / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 28.02.2019 / e) 2015Hun-Ma1204 / f) Denying Visitation Rights to a Person Who Desires to Become a Defense Counsel /
Both, the suspect or accused and the (prospective) defence council are right holders under the scope of the right to visitation and communication. The visitation and communication right is protected as a basic right under the Constitution. The right to visitation and communication enhances the facilitation of the right to obtain legal assistance. The right to visitation and communication of the... Read more
1.4.4 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Exhaustion of remedies.
1.4.9.2 Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Parties - Interest.
4.7.4.3.1 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Prosecutors / State counsel - Powers.
5.1.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.
5.3.13.27 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to counsel.
Warrant, detention / Visitation request, lawyer / Working hours, State public officials service regulations / Right to visitation and communication, defence counsel / Right to retain a defence counsel, suspect / Quasi-appeal, denial by prosecutor / Independent basic right, protected by Constitution / De jure right, Criminal Procedure Act / Interest, indirect, factual, economic.

KOR-2020-1-002 a) Korea / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 11.04.2019 / e) 2017Hun-Ma820 / f) Applying Provision That Bans Unfair Layoff under Labour Standards Act to Small-Scale Workplaces /
Article 32.3 of the Constitution mandates the legislature to define standards of working conditions consistent with the principle of human dignity. Whether a challenged provision infringes upon the right to work is determined based on whether the lawmakers completely failed to fulfil the obligation to protect workers from unfair layoff, or if such obligations, even if partially fulfilled, were... Read more
1.3.5.15 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Failure to act or to pass legislation.
2.2.2 Sources - Hierarchy - Hierarchy as between national sources.
3.19 General Principles - Margin of appreciation.
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
3.22 General Principles - Prohibition of arbitrariness.
5.2.1.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Employment.
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.13.1.5 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Non-litigious administrative proceedings.
5.4.3 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.
5.4.17 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.
Discharge, small size enterprise / Layoff, unfair / Labour Standard Act, unfair layoff provision / Civil Act, layoff provision / National Labour Relations Commission, remedial process / Layoff, grounds, procedure / Policy decision / Omission, legislative / Working condition, standard / Advance layoff notice / Worker, protection / Employment, contract, termination.

KOR-2020-1-003 a) Korea / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 27.12.2019 / e) 2016Hun-Ba96 / f) Penalising Profanation of National Flag /
The principle of nulla poena sine lege, which is derived from Article 12.1.2 and Article 13.1.1 of the Constitution means that offenses and penalties must be defined by law. The void-for-vagueness doctrine, which stems from this principle, requires the elements of a crime to be defined clearly so that people can foresee what conduct is punished by law and what penalty it may bring and... Read more
2.3 Sources - Techniques of review.
3.3.3 General Principles - Democracy - Pluralist democracy.
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
3.14 General Principles - Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.24 General Principles - Loyalty to the State.
4.2.1 Institutions - State Symbols - Flag.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
Insult, national flag / Void-for-vagueness doctrine / Common knowledge, sense of justice / Social reputation, undermine / National flag, desecration / Political view, expression / Flag, publicly used / Expression, means, content / Crime of purpose, wilful misconduct / Criticise, state / Democracy, spirit / Crime, destruction and damage.

KOSOVO

KOS-2020-1-001 a) Kosovo / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 06.04.2020 / e) KO 54/20 / f) President - Constitutional review of Decision no. 01/15 of the Government, 23 March 2020 /
Fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be restricted through Government decisions unless a restriction of the relevant right is provided by the law of the Assembly. The Government can only enforce a law of the Assembly that restricts a fundamental right and freedom only to the specific extent authorised by the Assembly through the relevant law. Restrictions of fundamental rights and freedoms as... Read more
1.3.5.10 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Rules issued by the executive.
2.1.1.4.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.
2.1.3.2.1 Sources - Categories - Case-law - International case-law - European Court of Human Rights.
3.4 General Principles - Separation of powers.
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
4.5.7 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Relations with the executive bodies.
4.18 Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.1.5 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.
5.3.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.
5.3.28 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of assembly.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
COVID-19, Public health.

LIECHTENSTEIN

LIE-2020-1-001 a) Liechtenstein / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 29.10.2019 / e) StGH 2019/038 / f) /
In asylum cases, an oral hearing before an independent tribunal with full discretion is required, if: 1. a decision is taken on the merits; 2. the applicant does not come from a safe third country; 3. the tribunal aims to establish further facts or amend the established facts; and 4. the applicant’s claims revolve around these facts.
5.3.13.6 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to a hearing.
Asylum, student, exmatriculation, refuge / Administrative proceedings, right to be heard, foreigner / Foreign office, oral hearing.

LITHUANIA

LTU-2020-1-001 a) Lithuania / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 16.05.2019 / e) KT14-N6/2019 / f) An ad hoc investigation commission of the Parliament (Seimas) for investigating the management of the Lithuanian National Radio and Television and its financial and economic activities /
The Constitution provides that the national public broadcaster’s mission is to further the public interest in ensuring that society, at the national level, is properly informed of information that fosters constitutional and common human values. This includes, amongst other things, information concerning the protection of national interests, to strengthen democracy, promote civic consciousness,... Read more
4.10.6 Institutions - Public finances - Auditing bodies.
5.3.23 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights in respect of the audiovisual media and other means of mass communication.
Freedom of information / Freedom of the media / Broadcaster, national, public / Accountability, democratic / Audit.

LTU-2020-1-002 a) Lithuania / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 07.06.2019 / e) KT17-N8/2019 / f) Distributing state budget appropriations to political parties /
The Legislature is, in respect of the establishment, activities and funding of political parties, under a constitutional duty to establish a means by which the regulation of political party funding is carried out so as to secure the proper and transparent allocation of state budget funds to such parties. Such regulation should be established by law and must, amongst other things, provide for... Read more
4.5.10.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Political parties - Financing.
4.10.2 Institutions - Public finances - Budget.
Political party, financing / Budget, state.

LTU-2020-1-003 a) Lithuania / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 08.11.2019 / e) KT44-N13/2019 / f) Condition of permanent residence in Lithuania for the payment of child maintenance benefits /
Under the Constitution, the state must, by means of a law, guarantee the sufficient and effective protection of the rights and legitimate interests of under-age children. The state is under a duty to ensure that account is, first of all, taken of the interests of the child and that no preconditions are created for violating those interests in the course of adopting laws and other legal acts, as... Read more
5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Positive obligation of the state.
5.3.44 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.
Child, interest, priority / Support, financial.

LTU-2020-1-004 a) Lithuania / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 09.03.2020 / e) KT41-N4/2020 / f) Immunity of judges /
Under the Constitution, neither the consent of Parliament (Seimas) nor of the President of the Republic is required for procedural measures provided for by law that, in themselves, do not restrict the physical liberty of a judge and which are necessary for the speedy disclosure and thorough investigation of criminal acts and other violations of law. Such measures could include those... Read more
1.1.3.3 Constitutional Justice - Constitutional jurisdiction - Status of the members of the court - Privileges and immunities.
4.7.16.2 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Liability - Liability of judges.
Independence, judges / Immunity, judges / Legal responsibility, acts, criminal / Liberty, physical.

MEXICO

MEX-2020-1-001 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 18.10.2017 / e) SUP-REP-142-2017 / f) /
Executive members of the decentralised bodies of the electoral administration body have decision-making powers, in matters of substantiation of disciplinary proceedings.
1.3.4.4 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Powers of local authorities.
Disciplinary proceedings, local authority / Inquiry, pre-trial material.

MEX-2020-1-002 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 25.10.2017 / e) SUP-JDC-894-2017 / f) /
Having dual nationality should not be an impediment to the right to access electoral functions, such as participating in a polling station presiding board.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
5.2.2.4 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Citizenship or nationality.
5.3.41 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights.
5.4.9 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right of access to the public service.
Election, electoral process, access, dual nationals.

MEX-2020-1-003 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 07.11.2017 / e) SUP-RAP-643-2017 / f) /
Publicity material in the form of an activity report must be analysed according to its content; personal, objective and temporal elements should not be valued separately. Such material will be viewed as authentic if it communicates, either generally or specifically, activities carried out by the relevant public officer.
4.10.2 Institutions - Public finances - Budget.
5.3.24 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.
Publicity material, dissemination, accountability.

MEX-2020-1-004 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 24.11.2017 / e) SUP-RAP-686-2017 / f) /
Expenses for general and polling station representatives represent necessary support for electoral processes. They should be classified as expenditure related to obtaining votes.
1.2.2.4 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Political parties.
4.5.10.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Political parties - Financing.
4.9.8.1 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material - Campaign financing.
4.9.8.2 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material - Campaign expenses.
Expenses, polling stations, classification.

MEX-2020-1-005 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 20.12.2017 / e) SUP-RAP-759-2017 / f) /
It is constitutional to implement valid fines at the time of the commission of the offence and not when the penalty is imposed.
5.3.13.1.4 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Litigious administrative proceedings.
5.3.16 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Principle of the application of the more lenient law.
5.3.38 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Non-retrospective effect of law.
Fine, amount, determination.

MEX-2020-1-006 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 20.12.2017 / e) SUP-REP-159-2017 / f) /
When deciding whether a communication through any form of media might affect fairness in an electoral contest and could be classified as a pre-campaign act, authorities must consider the specificities of the message it delivers and its impact. Should the withdrawal of the message be requested, as a precautionary measure, consideration must be given as to the likelihood of it having a detrimental... Read more
4.9.7 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Preliminary procedures.
4.9.8.3 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material - Access to media.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
Social media / Media, radio and television, pre-campaign broadcast / Political party, sole candidate.

MEX-2020-1-007 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 20.12.2017 / e) SUP-REC-1334-2017 / f) /
Composing a legislative body with women in the majority does not violate the parity principle. It is a way of overcoming the historical inequality the female gender has faced in the composition of ruling bodies and in active participation in politics.
4.5.3 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Composition.
4.9.10 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Minimum participation rate required.
5.2.2.1 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Gender.
5.2.3 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Affirmative action.
Deputy, political party, candidates / Candidature, political party, equity.

MEX-2020-1-008 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 17.01.2018 / e) SUP-JDC-1209-2017 / f) /
Ministers of any religion may not be voted into positions of popular election, unless they have been formally, materially and definitively separated from their ministry for the minimum length of time set out in the corresponding electoral legislation, depending on the type of election in question. This requirement is neither disproportionate nor irrational and, therefore, not unconstitutional,... Read more
3.7 General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.
4.9.7.2 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Preliminary procedures - Registration of parties and candidates.
5.3.41.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Right to stand for election.
Religion, church, state, separation / Church, State, separation / Religion, separation of church and state / Election, candidate, registration restrictions / Limitation, right / Limitation of right, justification / Civil rights.

MEX-2020-1-009 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 10.02.2018 / e) SUP-JRC-38-2018 / f) /
No political party may participate in more than one coalition, and such coalitions cannot be different in respect of the political parties that comprise them, for the type of election. Therefore, where political parties participate in coalitions for the same local electoral process with different parties as members, the principle of uniformity has not been observed.
1.2.2.4 Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Political parties.
1.3.5.12 Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Court decisions.
1.6.2 Constitutional Justice - Effects - Determination of effects by the court.
5.3.27 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of association.
Election, coalition / Election, conditions / Election, electoral coalition / Electoral coalition / Political parties.

MEX-2020-1-010 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 14.02.2018 / e) SUP-JRC-4-2018 / f) /
To guarantee the access of women to formal political power structures, it is necessary to guarantee that they have substantive representation (by enforcing its voice before a political body), but also from a symbolic perspective, in which they are visible in important public positions.
3.20 General Principles - Reasonableness.
3.21 General Principles - Equality.
4.5.3.1 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Composition - Election of members.
5.3.41 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights.
Candidates, equal opportunities, equity, balance, equality, gender / Gender, quota / Election, candidate, gender / Equality between men and women / Election, deputy, candidate / Chamber, Deputies / Deputy, local council.

MEX-2020-1-011 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 14.02.2018 / e) SUP-REC-1438-2017 / f) /
For cases involving indigenous law, the jurisdictional bodies, in accordance with their obligation to judge from an intercultural perspective, must adopt, with due diligence, all necessary elements to support their decisions and thus prevent the violation of the rights of the parties instituting proceedings.
4.8.3 Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Municipalities.
5.2.2.3 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Ethnic origin.
5.3.45 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Protection of minorities and persons belonging to minorities.
5.5.4 Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Right to self-determination.
5.5.5 Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Rights of aboriginal peoples, ancestral rights.
Indigenous right / Indigenous people, rights / Indigenous people / Interpretation, law / Community law, customary / Customary Law / Customary law, respect / Municipality / Member, municipal council / Municipality, income.

MEX-2020-1-013 a) Mexico / b) Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary / c) High Chamber / d) 09.03.2018 / e) SUP-REP-21-2018 / f) /
Transparency and availability of information on meetings for which there is no official record should be sought to the maximum extent, in order to record the actions of public servants and the purpose of their official activities (in accordance with the principles of Open Government), and to verify that the principles of impartiality and fairness of the electoral contest have not been violated.
4.9 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
5.3.28 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of assembly.
Transparency, administrative / Public servant / Public service, / Freedom of expression / Impartiality, principle / Elections / Election, candidacy, nomination / Misuse of public resources / Fairness, principle.

THE NETHERLANDS

NED-2020-1-001 a) The Netherlands / b) Supreme Court / c) Criminal chamber / d) 21.04.2020 / e) 19/04910 CW / f) /
The law provides for the possibility that a person may record a request for termination of life in a written statement that anticipates a situation in which they are no longer capable of expressing their will. A physician may grant such a request if all the legal requirements applicable to euthanasia are met, including the requirement of unbearable suffering without prospect of improvement. In... Read more
5.3.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.
5.3.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.
Euthanasia, written request / Euthanasia, person suffering from advanced dementia, special attention.

NORWAY

NOR-2020-1-001 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 12.12.2019 / e) HR-2019-2344-A / f) /
The general requirement of preponderance of the evidence – and not a lower standard of proof – applies in the assessment of whether an applicant for residence is younger or older than 18.
5.1.1.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners.
5.3.9 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right of residence.
Residence, right, foreigner, age assessment.

NOR-2020-1-002 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 27.02.2020 / e) HR-2019-1745-A / f) /
Confiscation of the right to use a domain name by reason of contribution to copyright infringement does not constitute a violation of the freedom of expression.
5.3.13.22 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Presumption of innocence.
5.3.14 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Ne bis in idem.
5.3.21 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.
Website, links, film, tv series, illegal access / Owner, domain, unknown / Copyright, infringement.

NOR-2020-1-003 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 27.03.2020 / e) HR-2020-661-S / f) /
A care order issued for a child that denies the father contact rights is based on a fair balance of considerations pertaining to the child’s best interest.
5.3.17 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to compensation for damage caused by the State.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
5.3.44 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.
Child, contact rights / Child, best interest.

NOR-2020-1-004 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 27.03.2020 / e) HR-2020-662-S / f) /
The goal of family reunification is to ensure that contact rights between the parent(s) and the child should be such as to strengthen and develop the bond between the child and the parent(s), yet pose no risk of harm to the child.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
5.3.44 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.
Child, care order / Family, reunification, goal / Child, contact rights, balanced / Child, best interest.

NOR-2020-1-005 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 27.03.2020 / e) HR-2020-663-S / f) /
The failure to consider the positive development in the mother s situation and to strike a fair balance between the long-term value of contact between the child and the mother and the necessity of adoption at this stage was flawed.
5.3.17 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to compensation for damage caused by the State.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
5.3.44 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.
Child, best interest, family ties / Authority, parental, removal / Adoption, foster parents.

NOR-2020-1-006 a) Norway / b) Supreme Court / c) Division / d) 08.05.2020 / e) HR-2020-972-A / f) /
The right to be brought before a court upon an initial remand in custody is a basic due process guarantee and the Corona Regulations must be interpreted within the scope of Article 5.3 ECHR and Article 94.2 of the Constitution.
5.3.5.1.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.
5.3.13 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.
COVID-19 regulations, scope, limits.

NORTH MACEDONIA

MKD-2020-1-001 a) Republic of North Macedonia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 15.01.2020 / e) U.br.72/2019 / f) /
Pursuant to Article 8.1.3 of the Constitution, the norms both in the laws and in the regulations should be precise, clear, unambiguous and not introduce even the slightest dose of legal uncertainty, in order to exclude any possibility of arbitrariness in their application. The rule of law implies the conception of general, precisely defined and unambiguously formulated rules, because only such... Read more
3.9 General Principles - Rule of law.
Standards, legal certainty.

RUSSIA

RUS-2020-1-001 a) Russia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 13.01.2020 / e) 1 / f) /
Medical organisations have an obligation to make a deceased person’s medical records available to the spouse if the latter so requests, and to grant the spouse the opportunity to make photocopies of those records.
5.3.24 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.
5.3.31 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to respect for one's honour and reputation.
Deceased person, spouse, rights / Medical records, access / Medical confidentiality.

RUS-2020-1-002 a) Russia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 21.01.2020 / e) 3 / f) /
A court cannot refuse to examine the merits of a lawyer’s complaints aimed at challenging a court decision declaring a citizen legally incompetent solely on the ground that no special power of attorney has been issued to authorise the lawyer to challenge the court decision.
5.1.1.4.2 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Incapacitated.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
Declaration of incompetence, lawyer, complaint, appeal / Special power of attorney.

RUS-2020-1-003 a) Russia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 14.04.2020 / e) 17 / f) /
A legal entity may be held administratively liable for intentional failure to comply with the requirements relating to transport safety only if the intentional nature of the actions or omissions of its responsible officials/employees has been clearly established.
5.1.1.5.1 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Legal persons - Private law.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
Legal entities, administrative liability / Offence, intentional, guilt / Transport safety.

SERBIA

SRB-2020-1-001 a) Serbia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 28.11.2019 / e) Už-5069/2014 / f) /
The person planning to file a lawsuit against the Republic of Serbia, in addition to the obligation to address the Republic Public Attorney's Office, has the obligation to, in case of failure of peaceful settlement of the dispute, submit a proof of this address along with the lawsuit.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
Access to courts, application of procedural law.

SLOVENIA

SLO-2020-1-001 a) Slovenia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 04.07.2020 / e) U-I-152/17 (UAVs) / f) /
The Constitutional Court established that the statutory provision allowing the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, i.e. drones) to collect data in the performance of police tasks is not inconsistent with the Constitution.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
Personal data, police / Police, surveillance, drone.

SLO-2020-1-002 a) Slovenia / b) Constitutional Court / c) / d) 04.07.2020 / e) U-I-152/17 (ANPR) / f) /
The Constitutional Court established that the statutory regulation allowing the Police to use a system of automatic number plate recognition entailed a sufficient legal basis for the collection of personal data by means of such a system. There was, however, no statutory basis for the automated comparison of the collected data with other databases of personal data and the regulation was thus... Read more
3.12 General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
Automatic number plate recognition, ANPR / Personal data, automated processing / Personal data, police / Personal data, processing / Personal data, processing, legal basis.

SWITZERLAND

SUI-2020-1-001 a) Suisse / b) Federal Court / c) Second Public Law Chamber / d) 14.02.2019 / e) 2C_373/2017 / f) A. v. Migration Office and Safety Directorate, Canton of Zurich /
Article 30.1.e of the Federal Act on Foreign Nationals and Integration (hereinafter, "FNIA"), Article 36 of the Federal Order on admission, residency and gainful employment (hereinafter, "OARGE"), Article 14.1 of the Federal Asylum Act (hereinafter, "AsylA"), Article 14 of the Convention against Trafficking in Human Beings; Article 4 ECHR. Right of a (presumed) victim of human trafficking to be... Read more
2.1.1.4 Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments.
5.1.1.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners.
5.1.1.3.1 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners - Refugees and applicants for refugee status.
5.3.5.2 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Prohibition of forced or compulsory labour.
5.3.9 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right of residence.
Asylum, seeker, expulsion / Asylum, seeker, refoulement / Asylum, procedure / Practical effect / Investigation, criminal law / Investigation, effective, requirement / Investigation, effective / Alien, residence permit, temporary, rejection / Criminal justice, efficacy / Temporary residence permit / Procedure, participation, victim, law / Criminal proceedings, victim / Dublin regulation / Human trafficking, prohibition.

SUI-2020-1-002 a) Suisse / b) Federal Court / c) First Public Law Chamber / d) 10.04.2019 / e) 2C_373/2017 / f) Béglé v. Vaud cantonal government /
Federal vote of 2016 on the popular initiative "For the couple and the family – No to the penalisation of marriage", information made available to voters before the vote, serious irregularities discovered after the event, effect on the outcome of the vote. Legal remedies in the event of irregularities in connection with a federal vote discovered after the event (recital 1.1); time-limit for... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
4.9.2 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Referenda and other instruments of direct democracy.
4.9.8 Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material.
5.3.41.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Freedom of voting.
Constitution, amendment / Information published by federal government / Information, false / Information, requisite accuracy / Popular initiative / Influence on public opinion / Voting, irregularity, effect on outcome of vote.

SUI-2020-1-003 a) Suisse / b) Federal Court / c) First Public Law Chamber / d) 20.05.2019 / e) 1B_146/2019 / f) A. v. Prison Service of the canton of Vaud and Lausanne District Public Prosecutor’s Office /
Articles 10.2, 13, 36 of the Federal Constitution, Article 8 ECHR, Articles 235 and 236 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter, "CCrP"), Articles 74 and 84 of the Criminal Code (hereinafter, "CrC") and Section 89 of the Vaud canton regulations on the status of convicted persons serving a prison sentence (hereinafter, "RCP"); inspection of incoming and outgoing correspondence of persons... Read more
3.13 General Principles - Legality.
3.16 General Principles - Proportionality.
3.17 General Principles - Weighing of interests.
3.18 General Principles - General interest.
5.1.1.4.3 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.
5.1.4 Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.
5.2 Fundamental Rights - Equality.
5.3.5.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
5.3.36.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Inviolability of communications - Correspondence.
Confidentiality of correspondence / Correspondence, mail, detainee / Detainee, correspondence, confidential / Prison, correspondence, mail / Security risk / Privacy of correspondence, mail.

SWEDEN

SWE-2020-1-001 a) Sweden / b) Supreme Administrative Court / c) / d) 03.03.2020 / e) 3456-18, 3457-18 / f) /
A decision whereby the Swedish Tax Agency refused to register a legal parent-child relationship established in Iceland has not been deemed a violation of Article 8 ECHR.
5.2.2.11 Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.
5.3.32 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.
5.3.33 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.
Discrimination, sexual orientation, parental rights, civil status / Foreigner, right to private life, right to family life.

SWE-2020-1-002 a) Sweden / b) Supreme Administrative Court / c) / d) 04.03.2020 / e) 3536-19 / f) /
A decision by a state agency on compensation for personal injury insurance for students cannot be appealed before an administrative court.
5.3.13.3 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.
Right to appeal, access to courts, administrative court, civil law / Student, insurance, personal injury.

SWE-2020-1-003 a) Sweden / b) Supreme Administrative Court / c) / d) 07.04.2020 / e) 6965–6970-18 / f) /
A Justice of the Supreme Administrative Court was not disqualified from ruling in a case concerning, inter alia, tax surcharges on reasons that she had, during her previous employment at the Swedish Tax Agency, dealt with the relevant legal issue.
5.3.13.15 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Impartiality.
Impartiality, tax ruling, bias.

SWE-2020-1-004 a) Sweden / b) Supreme Administrative Court / c) / d) 07.04.2020 / e) 3575–3581-19 / f) /
A judge who had been granted leave of absence from her service at an Administrative Court of Appeal to pursue employment as a Section Manager at the Tax Agency’s Legal Department, was found disqualified to participate in the final decision of a series of cases in which the Tax Agency was a party.
5.3.13.15 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Impartiality.
Impartiality, tax ruling, bias.

UKRAINE

UKR-2020-1-001 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) First Senate / d) 22.01.2020 / e) 1-r(I)/2020 / f) Conformity of the provisions of the second sentence of Article 42.4 of the Law "On the Constitutional Court" to the Constitution (constitutionality) /
The restriction set out in the second sentence of Article 42.4 of the Law no. 2136 regarding the failure to provide information upon requests for case files pending before the Constitutional Court, is based on the prescriptions of the law, pursues such a legitimate aim as protecting the rights of individuals, in particular the rights to non-interference with personal and family life guaranteed by... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
5.3.25 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency.
5.3.32.1 Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.
Information, access / Constitutional Court, openness / Limitation, access, information / Data, personal, protection / Aim, legitimate.

UKR-2020-1-002 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) Grand Chamber / d) 23.01.2020 / e) 1-r/2020 / f) Conformity of specific provisions of Section I, paragraph 2 of Section III "Final provisions" of the Law "On Amendments to Some Legislative Acts on Pension Provision" no. 213?VIII, 2 March 2015 to the Constitution (constitutionality) /
Articles 13, 14.2, 54.b, 54.c and 54.d of the Law no. 1788, as amended by the Law no. 213, which envisage a gradual increase of the retirement age by 5 years on preferential terms, taking into account the relevant work experience and length of service pension for employees defined in the said norms, violate the legitimate expectations of such persons, and thus contradict Article 8.1 of the... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
5.4.16 Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to a pension.
Pension, provision, certainty, legal.

UKR-2020-1-003 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) Grand Chamber / d) 18.02.2020 / e) 2-r/2020 / f) Compliance of specific provisions of paragraphs 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 22, 23, 25 of Section XII "Final and Transitional Provisions" of the Law "On the Judiciary and Status of Judges", 2 June 2016 no. 1402–VIII with the Constitution (constitutionality) /
The monthly lifetime allowance of a retired judge should be commensurate with the judicial remuneration received by a competent judge. In the event of an increase in such remuneration, the recalculation of the previously assigned monthly lifetime allowance of a retired judge shall be made automatically. The establishment of different approaches to the procedure for calculating the monthly... Read more
4.7.4.1.5 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - End of office.
4.7.7 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Supreme court.
Supreme court, judge, dismissal / Judge, evaluation / Judge, resignation.

UKR-2020-1-004 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) Grand Chamber / d) 27.02.2020 / e) 3-r/2020 / f) Compliance of the specific provision of Section VI.26 "Final and Transitional Provisions" of the Budget Code with the Constitution (constitutionality) /
The establishment of Section VI.26 "Final and Transitional Provisions" of the Code of other legislative regulation of relationships in the area of granting benefits to war veterans than that, provided for in Articles 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 of the Law no. 3551, entails legal uncertainty in the application of respective norms of the Code and the Law no. 3551, which is contrary to the principle of... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
4.10.2 Institutions - Public finances - Budget.
Participants, veteran, war, benefits, financing / Code, budget, regulation, subject.

UKR-2020-1-005 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) Grand Chamber / d) 11.03.2020 / e) 4-r/2020 / f) Conformity of the separate provisions of the Laws "On the Judiciary and Status of Judges" of June 2, 2016 no. 1402 – VIII, "On Amendments to the Law "On the Judiciary and Status of Judges" and of Some Laws on the Activity of Judicial Governance Bodies" of October 16, 2019 no. 193 – IX, "On the High Council of Justice" of December 21, 2016 no. 1798 – VIII /
The Parliament (Verkhovna Rada), as the sole legislative body in Ukraine, has the power to change the quantitative composition of judges of the Supreme Court, if the bill is tabled by the President after previous consultation with the High Council of Justice. The legislator cannot arbitrarily set or change the amount of the judge's remuneration by using its powers as an instrument of... Read more
4.7.5 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Supreme Judicial Council or equivalent body.
4.7.7 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Supreme court.
4.7.16.2 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Liability - Liability of judges.
Composition, Supreme court, reduction / Composition, judges, commission, qualification, high, amendments / Judge, disciplinary, proceedings.

UKR-2020-1-006 a) Ukraine / b) Constitutional Court / c) Second Senate / d) 15.04.2020 / e) 2-r(II)/2020 / f) Conformity of the provision of paragraph 28.1 of Section II of the Law "On Prevention of Financial Catastrophe and Creation of Prerequisites for Economic Growth in Ukraine" with the Constitution (constitutionality) /
One of the guarantees of the independence of judges who administer justice and retired judges is their proper financial and social security, which should guarantee the administration of fair, independent, impartial justice, and that the guarantees of independence of the judge, including measures to ensure his/her material and social security benefits, apply to all judges and cannot be abolished... Read more
3.10 General Principles - Certainty of the law.
4.5.2 Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers.
4.7.4.1.5 Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - End of office.
Assistance, severance, judge, resignation / Frame, time, reasonable.

B. Systematic Thesaurus
1.1.3.3Constitutional Justice - Constitutional jurisdiction - Status of the members of the court - Privileges and immunities.LTU-2020-1-004
1.2.1.1Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a public body - Head of State.ARG-2020-1-001
1.2.2.4Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Political parties.MEX-2020-1-004, MEX-2020-1-009
1.2.2.5Constitutional Justice - Types of claim - Claim by a private body or individual - Trade unions.BRA-2020-1-005
1.3.4.4Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - Types of litigation - Powers of local authorities.MEX-2020-1-001
1.3.5.9Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Parliamentary rules.ARG-2020-1-001
1.3.5.10Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Rules issued by the executive.KOS-2020-1-001
1.3.5.12Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Court decisions.MEX-2020-1-009
1.3.5.15Constitutional Justice - Jurisdiction - The subject of review - Failure to act or to pass legislation.KOR-2020-1-002
1.4.4Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Exhaustion of remedies.KOR-2020-1-001
1.4.9.2Constitutional Justice - Procedure - Parties - Interest.KOR-2020-1-001
1.5.3Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Form.ARG-2020-1-001
1.5.4.7Constitutional Justice - Decisions - Types - Interim measures.BRA-2020-1-005, GER-2020-1-007
1.6.2Constitutional Justice - Effects - Determination of effects by the court.MEX-2020-1-009
2.1.1.1.1Sources - Categories - Written rules - National rules - Constitution.ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-006
2.1.1.3Sources - Categories - Written rules - Law of the European Union/EU Law.CZE-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-008
2.1.1.4Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments.SUI-2020-1-001
2.1.1.4.4Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - European Convention on Human Rights of 1950.BIH-2020-1-001, CZE-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, KOS-2020-1-001
2.1.1.4.10Sources - Categories - Written rules - International instruments - Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969.ECJ-2020-1-002
2.1.3.2.1Sources - Categories - Case-law - International case-law - European Court of Human Rights.KOS-2020-1-001
2.2.1.6Sources - Hierarchy - Hierarchy as between national and non-national sources - Law of the European Union/EU Law and domestic law.GER-2020-1-008
2.2.2Sources - Hierarchy - Hierarchy as between national sources.KOR-2020-1-002
2.3Sources - Techniques of review.KOR-2020-1-003
3.1General Principles - Sovereignty.GER-2020-1-004, GER-2020-1-008
3.3General Principles - Democracy.BRA-2020-1-007
3.3.1General Principles - Democracy - Representative democracy.GER-2020-1-004, GER-2020-1-008
3.3.3General Principles - Democracy - Pluralist democracy.KOR-2020-1-003
3.4General Principles - Separation of powers.KOS-2020-1-001
3.6.3General Principles - Structure of the State - Federal State.BRA-2020-1-004
3.7General Principles - Relations between the State and bodies of a religious or ideological nature.AUT-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-005, MEX-2020-1-008
3.9General Principles - Rule of law.BIH-2020-1-001, CZE-2020-1-001, CZE-2020-1-002, KOS-2020-1-001, MKD-2020-1-001
3.10General Principles - Certainty of the law.CZE-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-002, ECH-2020-1-007, GER-2020-1-006, KOR-2020-1-003, SUI-2020-1-002, UKR-2020-1-001, UKR-2020-1-002, UKR-2020-1-004, UKR-2020-1-006
3.12General Principles - Clarity and precision of legal provisions.BIH-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-003, KOR-2020-1-003, SLO-2020-1-002
3.13General Principles - Legality.ECJ-2020-1-008, SUI-2020-1-003
3.14General Principles - Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege.KOR-2020-1-003
3.16General Principles - Proportionality.BIH-2020-1-001, CHI-2020-1-001, CRO-2020-1-001, FRA-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-008, KOR-2020-1-003, KOS-2020-1-001, MEX-2020-1-002, SUI-2020-1-003
3.17General Principles - Weighing of interests.BIH-2020-1-001, CHI-2020-1-001, FRA-2020-1-002, GER-2020-1-002, GER-2020-1-003, GER-2020-1-005, GER-2020-1-006, GER-2020-1-007, ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-003, ITA-2020-1-006, KOR-2020-1-003, SUI-2020-1-003
3.18General Principles - General interest.CZE-2020-1-001, SUI-2020-1-003
3.19General Principles - Margin of appreciation.ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-003, KOR-2020-1-002
3.20General Principles - Reasonableness.ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-003, ITA-2020-1-004, ITA-2020-1-006, KOR-2020-1-002, MEX-2020-1-002, MEX-2020-1-010
3.21General Principles - Equality.ITA-2020-1-004, MEX-2020-1-010
3.22General Principles - Prohibition of arbitrariness.BIH-2020-1-001, KOR-2020-1-002
3.24General Principles - Loyalty to the State.KOR-2020-1-003
3.25General Principles - Market economy.BRA-2020-1-006, CHI-2020-1-001
3.26General Principles - Fundamental principles of the Internal Market.GER-2020-1-008
4.2.1Institutions - State Symbols - Flag.KOR-2020-1-003
4.4.3Institutions - Head of State - Powers.BRA-2020-1-004
4.5.2Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers.ARG-2020-1-001, UKR-2020-1-006
4.5.2.1Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Competences with respect to international agreements.ARG-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-004
4.5.2.2Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Powers of enquiry.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.2.3Institutions - Legislative bodies - Powers - Delegation to another legislative body.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.3Institutions - Legislative bodies - Composition.MEX-2020-1-007
4.5.3.1Institutions - Legislative bodies - Composition - Election of members.MEX-2020-1-010
4.5.6Institutions - Legislative bodies - Law-making procedure.ARG-2020-1-001
4.5.6.3Institutions - Legislative bodies - Law-making procedure - Majority required.GER-2020-1-004
4.5.7Institutions - Legislative bodies - Relations with the executive bodies.KOS-2020-1-001
4.5.10.2Institutions - Legislative bodies - Political parties - Financing.LTU-2020-1-002, MEX-2020-1-004
4.6.4.4Institutions - Executive bodies - Composition - Status of members of executive bodies.CZE-2020-1-001
4.6.6Institutions - Executive bodies - Relations with judicial bodies.BRA-2020-1-002
4.7.2Institutions - Judicial bodies - Procedure.FRA-2020-1-004
4.7.4.1.2Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Appointment.ECJ-2020-1-001, ECJ-2020-1-005
4.7.4.1.5Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - End of office.UKR-2020-1-003, UKR-2020-1-006
4.7.4.1.6Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Members - Status.ECJ-2020-1-001
4.7.4.3.1Institutions - Judicial bodies - Organisation - Prosecutors / State counsel - Powers.KOR-2020-1-001
4.7.5Institutions - Judicial bodies - Supreme Judicial Council or equivalent body.UKR-2020-1-005
4.7.6Institutions - Judicial bodies - Relations with bodies of international jurisdiction.GER-2020-1-008
4.7.7Institutions - Judicial bodies - Supreme court.UKR-2020-1-003, UKR-2020-1-005
4.7.8.2Institutions - Judicial bodies - Ordinary courts - Criminal courts.FRA-2020-1-004
4.7.15.1.4Institutions - Judicial bodies - Legal assistance and representation of parties - The Bar - Status of members of the Bar.ECJ-2020-1-003
4.7.16.2Institutions - Judicial bodies - Liability - Liability of judges.LTU-2020-1-004, UKR-2020-1-005
4.8Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government.ITA-2020-1-005
4.8.1Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Federal entities.BRA-2020-1-004
4.8.3Institutions - Federalism, regionalism and local self-government - Municipalities.BRA-2020-1-003, MEX-2020-1-011
4.9Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy.BRA-2020-1-003, MEX-2020-1-013
4.9.2Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Referenda and other instruments of direct democracy.SUI-2020-1-002
4.9.5Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Eligibility.CZE-2020-1-001
4.9.7Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Preliminary procedures.MEX-2020-1-006
4.9.7.2Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Preliminary procedures - Registration of parties and candidates.MEX-2020-1-008
4.9.8Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material.SUI-2020-1-002
4.9.8.1Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material - Campaign financing.MEX-2020-1-004
4.9.8.2Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material - Campaign expenses.MEX-2020-1-004
4.9.8.3Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Electoral campaign and campaign material - Access to media.MEX-2020-1-006
4.9.10Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Minimum participation rate required.MEX-2020-1-007
4.9.15Institutions - Elections and instruments of direct democracy - Post-electoral procedures.CZE-2020-1-001
4.10Institutions - Public finances.GER-2020-1-008
4.10.2Institutions - Public finances - Budget.LTU-2020-1-002, MEX-2020-1-003, UKR-2020-1-004
4.10.6Institutions - Public finances - Auditing bodies.LTU-2020-1-001
4.17.1.5Institutions - European Union - Institutional structure - Court of Justice of the European Union.GER-2020-1-008
4.17.1.6Institutions - European Union - Institutional structure - European Central Bank.GER-2020-1-008
4.17.2Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between the EU and member states.GER-2020-1-008
4.17.2.1Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between the EU and member states - Sincere co-operation between EU institutions and member States.ECJ-2020-1-001, ECJ-2020-1-002
4.17.3Institutions - European Union - Distribution of powers between institutions of the EU.GER-2020-1-008
4.18Institutions - State of emergency and emergency powers.BIH-2020-1-001, BRA-2020-1-005, KOS-2020-1-001
5.1.1Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights.CHI-2020-1-003
5.1.1.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners.NOR-2020-1-001, SUI-2020-1-001
5.1.1.3.1Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Foreigners - Refugees and applicants for refugee status.SUI-2020-1-001
5.1.1.4.2Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Incapacitated.ITA-2020-1-006, RUS-2020-1-002
5.1.1.4.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Natural persons - Detainees.CHI-2020-1-003, KOR-2020-1-001, SUI-2020-1-003
5.1.1.5.1Fundamental Rights - General questions - Entitlement to rights - Legal persons - Private law.RUS-2020-1-003
5.1.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Positive obligation of the state.ECH-2020-1-008, LTU-2020-1-003
5.1.4Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions.KOS-2020-1-001, SUI-2020-1-003
5.1.4.2Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - General/special clause of limitation.BIH-2020-1-001, BRA-2020-1-002
5.1.4.3Fundamental Rights - General questions - Limits and restrictions - Subsequent review of limitation.BIH-2020-1-001
5.1.5Fundamental Rights - General questions - Emergency situations.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001
5.2Fundamental Rights - Equality.CHI-2020-1-001, CHI-2020-1-002, CHI-2020-1-003, ITA-2020-1-004, SUI-2020-1-003
5.2.1.2Fundamental Rights - Equality - Scope of application - Employment.BRA-2020-1-005, ECJ-2020-1-008, KOR-2020-1-002
5.2.2Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction.FRA-2020-1-002
5.2.2.1Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Gender.ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, MEX-2020-1-007
5.2.2.3Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Ethnic origin.MEX-2020-1-011
5.2.2.4Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Citizenship or nationality.MEX-2020-1-002
5.2.2.6Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Religion.GER-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-005
5.2.2.7Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Age.CHI-2020-1-003
5.2.2.8Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Physical or mental disability.GER-2020-1-003, ITA-2020-1-006
5.2.2.11Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Sexual orientation.BRA-2020-1-001, CRO-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-001, ECJ-2020-1-008, ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, SWE-2020-1-001
5.2.2.12Fundamental Rights - Equality - Criteria of distinction - Civil status.CRO-2020-1-001, FRA-2020-1-004
5.2.3Fundamental Rights - Equality - Affirmative action.MEX-2020-1-007
5.3.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to dignity.BRA-2020-1-008, CRO-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-008, FRA-2020-1-003, GER-2020-1-005, ITA-2020-1-003, ITA-2020-1-006, KOR-2020-1-002, NED-2020-1-001
5.3.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to life.BRA-2020-1-008, GER-2020-1-005, ITA-2020-1-003, NED-2020-1-001
5.3.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Prohibition of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment.CZE-2020-1-002, ECH-2020-1-004
5.3.4Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to physical and psychological integrity.ECH-2020-1-007
5.3.5Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty.CHI-2020-1-003, ITA-2020-1-003
5.3.5.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty.ECJ-2020-1-004, ECJ-2020-1-007, ITA-2020-1-004, ITA-2020-1-006, SUI-2020-1-003
5.3.5.1.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Deprivation of liberty - Detention pending trial.NOR-2020-1-006
5.3.5.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Individual liberty - Prohibition of forced or compulsory labour.SUI-2020-1-001
5.3.6Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of movement.BIH-2020-1-001, KOS-2020-1-001
5.3.9Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right of residence.NOR-2020-1-001, SUI-2020-1-001
5.3.11Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right of asylum.ECH-2020-1-006
5.3.13Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial.CHI-2020-1-002, ECH-2020-1-005, ECH-2020-1-007, ECJ-2020-1-007, NOR-2020-1-006
5.3.13.1.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Criminal proceedings.ECJ-2020-1-004
5.3.13.1.4Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Litigious administrative proceedings.MEX-2020-1-005
5.3.13.1.5Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Scope - Non-litigious administrative proceedings.KOR-2020-1-002
5.3.13.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Effective remedy.AZE-2020-1-002, ECH-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-006, ECH-2020-1-007, ECJ-2020-1-006
5.3.13.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Access to courts.ECH-2020-1-007, ECJ-2020-1-003, RUS-2020-1-002, RUS-2020-1-003, SRB-2020-1-001, SWE-2020-1-002
5.3.13.6Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to a hearing.LIE-2020-1-001
5.3.13.13Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Trial/decision within reasonable time.CAN-2020-1-001
5.3.13.14Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Independence.ECJ-2020-1-001, ECJ-2020-1-005
5.3.13.15Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Impartiality.ECJ-2020-1-001, ECJ-2020-1-005, SWE-2020-1-003, SWE-2020-1-004
5.3.13.22Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Presumption of innocence.AZE-2020-1-001, NOR-2020-1-002
5.3.13.27Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Procedural safeguards, rights of the defence and fair trial - Right to counsel.ECJ-2020-1-003, KOR-2020-1-001
5.3.14Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Ne bis in idem.NOR-2020-1-002
5.3.15Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of victims of crime.CHI-2020-1-003
5.3.16Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Principle of the application of the more lenient law.MEX-2020-1-005
5.3.17Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to compensation for damage caused by the State.NOR-2020-1-003, NOR-2020-1-005
5.3.18Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of conscience.GER-2020-1-002
5.3.19Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of opinion.CHI-2020-1-003
5.3.20Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of worship.AUT-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-005
5.3.21Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of expression.ECH-2020-1-002, KOR-2020-1-003, MEX-2020-1-006, MEX-2020-1-012, MEX-2020-1-013, NOR-2020-1-002
5.3.23Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights in respect of the audiovisual media and other means of mass communication.ECH-2020-1-003, LTU-2020-1-001
5.3.24Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to information.BRA-2020-1-007, FRA-2020-1-005, MEX-2020-1-003, RUS-2020-1-001
5.3.25Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency.BRA-2020-1-007, UKR-2020-1-001
5.3.25.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to administrative transparency - Right of access to administrative documents.FRA-2020-1-005
5.3.27Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of association.MEX-2020-1-009
5.3.28Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Freedom of assembly.KOS-2020-1-001, MEX-2020-1-013
5.3.31Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to respect for one's honour and reputation.ECH-2020-1-005, RUS-2020-1-001
5.3.32Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life.ECH-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-005, ECH-2020-1-008, KOS-2020-1-001, SLO-2020-1-001, SLO-2020-1-002, SUI-2020-1-003, SWE-2020-1-001
5.3.32.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to private life - Protection of personal data.BRA-2020-1-002, ECH-2020-1-003, SLO-2020-1-001, SLO-2020-1-002, UKR-2020-1-001
5.3.33Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to family life.ECH-2020-1-001, ECH-2020-1-003, ECH-2020-1-004, FRA-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-006, KOS-2020-1-001, NOR-2020-1-003, NOR-2020-1-004, NOR-2020-1-005, SUI-2020-1-003, SWE-2020-1-001
5.3.34Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to marriage.ECH-2020-1-004
5.3.36.1Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Inviolability of communications - Correspondence.SUI-2020-1-003
5.3.38Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Non-retrospective effect of law.MEX-2020-1-005
5.3.39Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property.AZE-2020-1-002
5.3.39.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to property - Other limitations.GER-2020-1-006
5.3.41Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights.GER-2020-1-004, MEX-2020-1-002, MEX-2020-1-010
5.3.41.2Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Right to stand for election.BRA-2020-1-003, MEX-2020-1-008
5.3.41.3Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Freedom of voting.SUI-2020-1-002
5.3.41.5Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Electoral rights - Direct / indirect ballot.BRA-2020-1-003
5.3.42Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights in respect of taxation.BRA-2020-1-002
5.3.43Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Right to self fulfilment.BRA-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-005
5.3.44Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Rights of the child.BIH-2020-1-001, LTU-2020-1-003, NOR-2020-1-003, NOR-2020-1-004, NOR-2020-1-005
5.3.45Fundamental Rights - Civil and political rights - Protection of minorities and persons belonging to minorities.BRA-2020-1-001, MEX-2020-1-011
5.4.2Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to education.FRA-2020-1-005
5.4.3Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to work.BRA-2020-1-005, BRA-2020-1-006, CHI-2020-1-001, CHI-2020-1-002, ECJ-2020-1-008, KOR-2020-1-002
5.4.6Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Commercial and industrial freedom.CHI-2020-1-001, FRA-2020-1-001
5.4.9Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right of access to the public service.MEX-2020-1-002
5.4.11Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Freedom of trade unions.BRA-2020-1-005, CHI-2020-1-002, GER-2020-1-001
5.4.13Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to housing.KAZ-2020-1-001
5.4.16Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to a pension.UKR-2020-1-002
5.4.17Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to just and decent working conditions.BRA-2020-1-005, BRA-2020-1-006, KOR-2020-1-002
5.4.19Fundamental Rights - Economic, social and cultural rights - Right to health.CHI-2020-1-001, CHI-2020-1-003, ECH-2020-1-008, FRA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-003
5.5.1Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Right to the environment.FRA-2020-1-001
5.5.4Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Right to self-determination.GER-2020-1-004, MEX-2020-1-011
5.5.5Fundamental Rights - Collective rights - Rights of aboriginal peoples, ancestral rights.MEX-2020-1-011

C. Alphabetical Index

Access to courts, application of procedural law SRB-2020-1-001
Accountability, democratic LTU-2020-1-001
Administration, information, access, reasonable FRA-2020-1-005
Administrative proceedings, right to be heard, foreigner LIE-2020-1-001
Adoption, child, best interests FRA-2020-1-002
Adoption, consent, natural father FRA-2020-1-002
Adoption, foster parents NOR-2020-1-005
Adoption, right, discrimination FRA-2020-1-002
Advance layoff notice KOR-2020-1-002
Aim, legitimate UKR-2020-1-001
Alien, residence permit, temporary, rejection SUI-2020-1-001
Arbitration, court, decision, enforcement ECJ-2020-1-006, ECJ-2020-1-002
Assets, financial, purchase GER-2020-1-008
Assistance, severance, judge, resignation UKR-2020-1-006
Asylum, procedure SUI-2020-1-001
Asylum, seeker, refoulement SUI-2020-1-001
Asylum, seeker, expulsion SUI-2020-1-001
Asylum, student, exmatriculation, refuge LIE-2020-1-001
Audit LTU-2020-1-001
Authority, parental, removal NOR-2020-1-005
Automatic number plate recognition, ANPR SLO-2020-1-002
Bank account, tax inspection, disclosure BRA-2020-1-002
Banking secrecy, lifting, fraud, evidence BRA-2020-1-002
Birth certificate to a foreign national issued by a Civil registry official ITA-2020-1-002
Birth, registration BRA-2020-1-001
Border, national, definition ECJ-2020-1-006, ECJ-2020-1-002
Broadcaster, national, public LTU-2020-1-001
Budget, state LTU-2020-1-002
Candidates, equal opportunities, equity, balance, equality, gender MEX-2020-1-010
Candidature, political party, equity MEX-2020-1-007
Chamber, Deputies MEX-2020-1-010
Charter of rights and freedoms, right to be tried within reasonable time CAN-2020-1-001
Child, best interest NOR-2020-1-004, NOR-2020-1-003
Child, best interest, family ties NOR-2020-1-005
Child, care order NOR-2020-1-004
Child, contact rights NOR-2020-1-003
Child, contact rights, balanced NOR-2020-1-004
Child, disabled ITA-2020-1-006
Child, interest, priority LTU-2020-1-003
Children, special needs, mental and physical condition BIH-2020-1-001
Church, State, separation MEX-2020-1-008
Circumstance, exceptional BIH-2020-1-001
Civil Act, layoff provision KOR-2020-1-002
Civil rights MEX-2020-1-008
Code, budget, regulation, subject UKR-2020-1-004
Collective agreement, generally binding GER-2020-1-001
Collective bargaining, right GER-2020-1-001
Common knowledge, sense of justice KOR-2020-1-003
Community law, customary MEX-2020-1-011
Competences, exceeding GER-2020-1-008
Composition, judges, commission, qualification, high, amendments UKR-2020-1-005
Composition, Supreme court, reduction UKR-2020-1-005
Conduct, person crossing border, unauthorised manner, en masse using force ECH-2020-1-006
Conferral, principle of GER-2020-1-008
Confidentiality of correspondence SUI-2020-1-003
Confidentiality, proceedings, definition, requirement BRA-2020-1-002
Conflict of interest, healthcare, economic activity, sale of goods CHI-2020-1-001
Constitution, amendment SUI-2020-1-002
Constitution, identity GER-2020-1-008
Constitutional Court, openness UKR-2020-1-001
Copyright, infringement NOR-2020-1-002
Correspondence, mail, detainee SUI-2020-1-003
Court, competence ECJ-2020-1-002
Court, jurisdiction ECJ-2020-1-006
COVID-19 ARG-2020-1-001, BIH-2020-1-001, GER-2020-1-007
COVID-19 regulations, scope, limits NOR-2020-1-006
COVID-19, pandemic CHI-2020-1-003
COVID-19, Public health KOS-2020-1-001
Crime of purpose, wilful misconduct KOR-2020-1-003
Crime, destruction and damage KOR-2020-1-003
Criminal justice, efficacy SUI-2020-1-001
Criminal procedure, witness testimony FRA-2020-1-004
Criminal proceedings, victim SUI-2020-1-001
Criticise, state KOR-2020-1-003
Customary Law MEX-2020-1-011
Customary law, respect MEX-2020-1-011
Cyber violation of privacy, domestic violence ECH-2020-1-004
Cyberbullying, violence against women and girls ECH-2020-1-004
Cybersurveillance, domestic violence, partner ECH-2020-1-004
Damages, claims, limitation period ECH-2020-1-007
Data, personal, protection UKR-2020-1-001
De jure right, Criminal Procedure Act KOR-2020-1-001
Death, self-determined, right GER-2020-1-005
Deceased person, spouse, rights RUS-2020-1-001
Declaration of incompetence, lawyer, complaint, appeal RUS-2020-1-002
Decree, presidential, validity BRA-2020-1-004
Democracy, spirit KOR-2020-1-003
Deputy, local council MEX-2020-1-010
Deputy, political party, candidates MEX-2020-1-007
Detainee, correspondence, confidential SUI-2020-1-003
Disability, assistance, guide dogs GER-2020-1-003
Discharge, small size enterprise KOR-2020-1-002
Disciplinary proceedings, local authority MEX-2020-1-001
Discrimination, sexual orientation ECJ-2020-1-008
Discrimination, sexual orientation by national authorities ECH-2020-1-001
Discrimination, sexual orientation, parental rights, civil status SWE-2020-1-001
Document, administrative, access, right FRA-2020-1-005
Double jeopardy ECJ-2020-1-004
Dublin regulation SUI-2020-1-001
Economic and financial crisis, policy, measure BRA-2020-1-005
Economy, state intervention BRA-2020-1-005
Education, higher, access FRA-2020-1-005
Education, higher, access, condition FRA-2020-1-005
Election, candidacy, nomination MEX-2020-1-013
Election, candidate, gender MEX-2020-1-010
Election, candidate, registration restrictions MEX-2020-1-008
Election, coalition MEX-2020-1-009
Election, conditions MEX-2020-1-009
Election, deputy, candidate MEX-2020-1-010
Election, electoral coalition MEX-2020-1-009
Election, electoral process, access, dual nationals MEX-2020-1-002
Election, invalidity BRA-2020-1-003
Election, referendum, voters, forum, mobile, application, share opinions and convey political message ECH-2020-1-002
Elections MEX-2020-1-013
Electoral coalition MEX-2020-1-009
Emergency legislation, approval BRA-2020-1-005
Employment, contract, termination KOR-2020-1-002
Employment, discrimination ECJ-2020-1-008
Employment, preservation, pandemic BRA-2020-1-006
Employment, working conditions ECJ-2020-1-008
Enterprise, small and medium-sized BRA-2020-1-006
Environment, right to the protection of a healthy environment FRA-2020-1-001
Equality between men and women MEX-2020-1-010
Equality, proportionality, due process, breach CHI-2020-1-002
European Arrest Warrant, surrender procedures between Member States ECJ-2020-1-004
European Central Bank, mandate GER-2020-1-008
European Economic Area, Agreement ECJ-2020-1-007
European integration, agenda GER-2020-1-008
European Union act, ultra vires, review GER-2020-1-008
European Union, Court of Justice ECJ-2020-1-006
European Union, Court of Justice, competence ECJ-2020-1-002
European Union, Court of Justice, democratic legitimation GER-2020-1-008
European Union, Court of Justice, judicial mandate GER-2020-1-008
European Union, Court of Justice, submission procedure, preliminary ruling ECJ-2020-1-001
Euthanasia, person suffering from advanced dementia, special attention NED-2020-1-001
Euthanasia, written request NED-2020-1-001
Expenses, polling stations, classification MEX-2020-1-004
Expression, means, content KOR-2020-1-003
Extradition, assurance by receiving state CZE-2020-1-002, ECJ-2020-1-007
Extradition, guarantees ECJ-2020-1-007
Extradition, proceedings ECJ-2020-1-007
Extradition, receiving state, information CZE-2020-1-002
Extradition, safeguard CZE-2020-1-002
Facility, religious ITA-2020-1-005
Fairness, principle MEX-2020-1-013
Family tradition, values, social acceptance of homosexuality ECH-2020-1-001
Family, reunification, goal NOR-2020-1-004
Fine, administrative GER-2020-1-006
Fine, administrative sanction GER-2020-1-006
Fine, amount, determination MEX-2020-1-005
Flag, publicly used KOR-2020-1-003
Foreign office, oral hearing LIE-2020-1-001
Foreigner, right to private life, right to family life SWE-2020-1-001
Foster care, providers, same sex life partners CRO-2020-1-001
Frame, time, reasonable UKR-2020-1-006
Freedom of enterprise, restriction FRA-2020-1-001
Freedom of expression MEX-2020-1-013
Freedom of expression, exception MEX-2020-1-012
Freedom of information LTU-2020-1-001
Freedom of the media LTU-2020-1-001
Freedom of training GER-2020-1-002
Freedom to trade, restriction FRA-2020-1-001
Gender reassignment, legal conditions BRA-2020-1-001
Gender, change, recognition BRA-2020-1-001
Gender, quota MEX-2020-1-010
Government bonds, purchase GER-2020-1-008
Health protection, system BRA-2020-1-004
Homosexual, couple ITA-2020-1-002, ITA-2020-1-001
Housing, deprivation KAZ-2020-1-001
Human trafficking, prohibition SUI-2020-1-001
Immunity, judges LTU-2020-1-004
Impartiality, principle MEX-2020-1-013
Impartiality, tax ruling, bias SWE-2020-1-003, SWE-2020-1-004
Independence, judges LTU-2020-1-004
Independent basic right, protected by Constitution KOR-2020-1-001
Indigenous people MEX-2020-1-011
Indigenous people, protection, COVID-19 BRA-2020-1-008
Indigenous people, rights MEX-2020-1-011
Indigenous right MEX-2020-1-011
Individual interest, conflict, margin of appreciation ECH-2020-1-007
Influence on public opinion SUI-2020-1-002
Information published by federal government SUI-2020-1-002
Information, access UKR-2020-1-001
Information, access, denial BRA-2020-1-007
Information, access, limit BRA-2020-1-007
Information, access, reasonable BRA-2020-1-007
Information, disclosure BRA-2020-1-007
Information, duty to provide BRA-2020-1-007
Information, false SUI-2020-1-002
Information, reasonable access BRA-2020-1-007
Information, requisite accuracy SUI-2020-1-002
Inquiry, pre-trial material MEX-2020-1-001
Insult, national flag KOR-2020-1-003
Integration, responsibility GER-2020-1-008
Interest, indirect, factual, economic KOR-2020-1-001
International law, general principles, effects in national law ECJ-2020-1-006, ECJ-2020-1-002
International treaty, act of approval GER-2020-1-004
Interpretation, law MEX-2020-1-011
Investigation, criminal law SUI-2020-1-001
Investigation, effective SUI-2020-1-001
Investigation, effective, requirement SUI-2020-1-001
Judge, appointment ECJ-2020-1-005
Judge, disciplinary, proceedings UKR-2020-1-005
Judge, dismissal ECJ-2020-1-005
Judge, evaluation UKR-2020-1-003
Judge, independence, autonomy, impartiality ECJ-2020-1-001
Judge, resignation UKR-2020-1-003
Judicial authority, intervention, necessity ECJ-2020-1-004
Judicial protection KAZ-2020-1-001
Labour rights, restrictions, requirements BRA-2020-1-005
Labour Standard Act, unfair layoff provision KOR-2020-1-002
Law, lack of clarity, vagueness ECH-2020-1-002
Lawyer, independence ECJ-2020-1-003
Layoff, grounds, procedure KOR-2020-1-002
Layoff, unfair KOR-2020-1-002
Legal entities, administrative liability RUS-2020-1-003
Legal provisions, suspension GER-2020-1-007
Legal representative, attorney ECJ-2020-1-003
Legal responsibility, acts, criminal LTU-2020-1-004
Legal trainee, wearing a headscarf GER-2020-1-002
Legislative competence, shared, limits BRA-2020-1-004
Liberty, physical LTU-2020-1-004
Life sentence, crimes related to criminal organisations ITA-2020-1-004
Limitation of right, justification MEX-2020-1-008, KAZ-2020-1-001
Limitation, access, information UKR-2020-1-001
Limitation, right MEX-2020-1-008
Media, defamation MEX-2020-1-012
Media, freedom of expression, limits MEX-2020-1-012
Media, radio and television, pre-campaign broadcast MEX-2020-1-006
Medical confidentiality RUS-2020-1-001
Medical records, access RUS-2020-1-001
Medically assisted procreation ITA-2020-1-001, ITA-2020-1-002
Member, municipal council MEX-2020-1-011
Migrant, asylum-seeker, refusal of admission ECH-2020-1-006
Migrants, asylum-seekers, expulsion ECH-2020-1-006
Migrants, asylum-seekers, land border, immediate and forceable return ECH-2020-1-006
Misuse of public resources MEX-2020-1-013
Monetary financing, prohibition GER-2020-1-008
Monetary policy GER-2020-1-008
Mother, imprisoned ITA-2020-1-006
Municipality MEX-2020-1-011
Municipality, income MEX-2020-1-011
National flag, desecration KOR-2020-1-003
National Labour Relations Commission, remedial process KOR-2020-1-002
Offence, intentional, guilt RUS-2020-1-003
Omission, legislative KOR-2020-1-002
Owner, domain, unknown NOR-2020-1-002
Pardon, power to grant, acting President CHI-2020-1-003
Pardon, restriction CHI-2020-1-003
Parliament, virtual sessions ARG-2020-1-001
Participants, veteran, war, benefits, financing UKR-2020-1-004
Pension, provision, certainty, legal UKR-2020-1-002
Person, elderly BIH-2020-1-001
Personal autonomy GER-2020-1-005
Personal data, automated processing SLO-2020-1-002
Personal data, police SLO-2020-1-001, SLO-2020-1-002
Personal data, processing SLO-2020-1-002
Personal data, processing, legal basis SLO-2020-1-002
Personal data, storage, access ECH-2020-1-003
Personal data, storage, crime prevention ECH-2020-1-003
Personal data, storage, prepaid mobile phone SIM-card ECH-2020-1-003
Personal mobility GER-2020-1-003
Personality, general right GER-2020-1-005
Physical injury, compensation, date of stabilisation of illness ECH-2020-1-007
Police, surveillance, drone SLO-2020-1-001
Policy decision KOR-2020-1-002
Political parties MEX-2020-1-009
Political party, financing LTU-2020-1-002
Political party, sole candidate MEX-2020-1-006
Political view, expression KOR-2020-1-003
Popular initiative SUI-2020-1-002
Positive obligation, social welfare, children CRO-2020-1-001
Practical effect SUI-2020-1-001
Preliminary injunction GER-2020-1-006
Preliminary ruling, national courts ECJ-2020-1-001
Prison, correspondence, mail SUI-2020-1-003
Privacy of correspondence, mail SUI-2020-1-003
Procedure, participation, victim, law SUI-2020-1-001
Prohibition of refoulement, status of refugees ECH-2020-1-006
Prohibition, optical shop, optometrist, ophthalmologist, shop attendance CHI-2020-1-001
Propaganda, electoral MEX-2020-1-012
Propaganda, prohibition MEX-2020-1-012
Protection of the existent health system BIH-2020-1-001
Protection, judicial AZE-2020-1-002
Public office, private interests, incompatibility CZE-2020-1-001
Public servant MEX-2020-1-013
Public service, MEX-2020-1-013
Publicity material, dissemination, accountability MEX-2020-1-003
Quasi-appeal, denial by prosecutor KOR-2020-1-001
Rehabilitation, judicial, convicted person, reclassification FRA-2020-1-003
Release, short, bonus periods ITA-2020-1-004
Religion and ideology, neutrality of the state GER-2020-1-002
Religion, church, state, separation MEX-2020-1-008
Religion, clothing, restriction GER-2020-1-002
Religion, freedom, negative GER-2020-1-002
Religion, freedom, positive GER-2020-1-002
Religion, headscarf, symbol GER-2020-1-002
Religion, separation of church and state MEX-2020-1-008
Remedy, effective ECJ-2020-1-003
Rent, pricing, regulation GER-2020-1-006
Res judicata, intersectoral AZE-2020-1-001
Res judicata, intra-sectoral AZE-2020-1-001
Res judicata, scope AZE-2020-1-001
Residence, right, foreigner, age assessment NOR-2020-1-001
Right to appeal, access to courts, administrative court, civil law SWE-2020-1-002
Right to retain a defence counsel, suspect KOR-2020-1-001
Right to visitation and communication, defence counsel KOR-2020-1-001
Risk sharing, Eurosystem GER-2020-1-008
Salary, reduction, compensation BRA-2020-1-005
Sanitation, access, adequate ECH-2020-1-008
Secularism, religious holidays AUT-2020-1-001
Security risk SUI-2020-1-003
Sexual orientation, incitement to hatred and violence, national authorities, duty to investigate ECH-2020-1-001
Slander MEX-2020-1-012
Social media MEX-2020-1-006
Social reputation, undermine KOR-2020-1-003
Social security AZE-2020-1-002
Social state KAZ-2020-1-001
Sovereign powers, conferral, review GER-2020-1-004
Special power of attorney RUS-2020-1-002
Sport, professional, suspension, disciplinary ECH-2020-1-005
Standards, legal certainty MKD-2020-1-001
Student, insurance, personal injury SWE-2020-1-002
Suicide, assistance, criminal offence GER-2020-1-005
Suicide, assisted ITA-2020-1-003
Suicide, assisted, service GER-2020-1-005
Support, financial LTU-2020-1-003
Supreme court, judge, dismissal UKR-2020-1-003
Temporary residence permit SUI-2020-1-001
Transparency, administrative MEX-2020-1-013
Transport safety RUS-2020-1-003
Urban planning ITA-2020-1-005
Vaccination, resulting illness ECH-2020-1-007
Verdict, deliberation time CAN-2020-1-001
Visitation request, lawyer KOR-2020-1-001
Void-for-vagueness doctrine KOR-2020-1-003
Voting, irregularity, effect on outcome of vote SUI-2020-1-002
Warrant, detention KOR-2020-1-001
Water, safe to drink, access, adequate ECH-2020-1-008
Website, links, film, tv series, illegal access NOR-2020-1-002
Witness testimony, preliminary procedure, submission of evidence at trial FRA-2020-1-004
Worker, protection KOR-2020-1-002
Worker’s rights, union, anti-union activities, breach, employer CHI-2020-1-002
Working condition, standard KOR-2020-1-002
Working hours, State public officials service regulations KOR-2020-1-001

Ed. 11.09.2020 12:28:26