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Anatoly KOVLER




Date and

place of birth             26 August 1948, Sari-Khassar, Tadjikistan, former USSR

Nationality                 Russian

Marital status             divorced, one son, three grandsons




a. Education

  • 1966-1971

Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO)

  • 1973-1977

Post-graduate studies, Institute of Comparative Political Studies, Academy of Sciences of USSR

  • 1985

Research studies, Universities of Florence and Bologna (Italy)

  • 1988

Research studies, Maison des Sciences de l‘Homme, Paris (France)

b. Diplomas

  • 1971

Diploma of higher education (international relations, law)

  • 1978

Diploma of Candidate of Sciences in history (PhD)

  • 1991

Diploma of Doctor of Sciences in law

  • 1993

Professor diploma

c. Honorific qualifications

  • 1994

Merited Lawyer of the Russian Federation

  • 1995

Academician of the Russian Academy of Political Science (Moscow)

  • 1998

Associate Member of the International Academy of Comparative Law (Paris)

  • 2002

Prize “Justice” of the National Foundation « Legal Science » (Saint-Petersburg)

  • 2009

Prize “Themis” of the Russian Association of Lawyers (Moscow)



a. Judicial activities

  • 1977-1978

Scientific editor, Academy of Sciences of USSR

  • 1979-1999

Researcher (1979), Senior Researcher (1985), Head of Department (1987), Head of the Centre of Comparative Law (1992), Institute of State and Law, Russian Academy of Sciences. Specialisation: constitutional law, human rights, anthropology of law.

  • 1996-1999

Editor-in-Chief, «State and Law» Review (Moscow)

  • 1999-2012

Judge of the European Court of Human Rights elected in respect of Russia

  • 2013-2014

Special Advisor of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation

  • since 2016

Senior researcher of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation



b. Teaching

Teaching in Russia

  • 1978-1980

Moscow State Institute of International Relations (Moscow):

  • Introduction to the French law
  • 1988-1991

Moscow State University «Lomonossov»:

  • History of legal and political institutions 
  • 1992-1994

Russian Academy of Management (Moscow) :

  • Theory of law, political marketing 
  • 1994-1999

Academic Legal University at the Institute of State and Law:

  • Anthropology of law 
  • 1998

High School of Economics (Moscow):

  • Comparative jurisprudence
  • 1999-2012

Universities of Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Saratov, Saint-Petersburg:

  • European law (law of the Council of Europe)
  • since 2013

Moscow State University «Lomonossov» and Moscow High School of Economics:

  • European Convention on Human Rights and the European Court's case- law


Teaching abroad (visiting professor)

 Lectures and courses on Russian law, human rights, international law at the following universities:

- University of Florence (Italy) (1985-1987);

- Brussells Free University (Belgium) (1989) ;

- Milan State University (Italy) ( 1990, 1992, 2000, 2003, 2012) ;

- University Aix-Marseille III (France) (1991, 1992, 1998, 2016) ;

- Aristotel University of Thessalonica (Greece) (1992) ;

- Geneva University (Switzerland), (1992) ;

- Georgetown University (Washington, DC, USA) (1993) ;

- European Institute of High International Studies, Nice (France) (1993-1997, 2010-2016);

- University Paris-I Sorbonne (France) (1994-2000) ;

- European College of Parma (Italy) (1994);

- Universities of Pavia and Padua (Italy) (1994-1997) ;

- College of Federalist Studies, Aosta (Italy) (1994-1997);

- University Paris-X Nanterre (France) (1996-1999) ;

- Universities of Antilles and Guyana (Guadeloupe, Martinique) (1997) ;

- Universities of Toulouse (1995-1997, 2011), Montpellier (1998), Bordeaux (1998, 2000), Clermont-Ferrand (2005-2011), Pau (2008)  (France);

- University of Blagoevgrad, Veliko-Tyrnovo (Bulgaria) (1998, 1999);

- Milan Catholic University (Italy) (2000, 2007);

- Uppsala University (Sweden) (2003, 2007);

- Cambridge University (2009);

- University of Greenland (2011);

- Human rights’ summer school René Cassin, Strasbourg (2012-2015).




Member of the Commission on Human Rights, Association of Soviet Lawyers


Founding Member and Member of Board of Directors, International Foundation « INTERLEGAL » (Moscow):

- legal assistance to social movements and independent candidates for elections;

- legal assistance to the veterans of Afghanistan war.

1994-1996, 1999

Founding Member and President of the Scientific Council, Russian Educational Centre of Electoral Technologies:

- training for electoral observers;

- drafting of the Charter of Fair Elections.

1993, 1995, 1996

Expert, Association of Peace and Concord:

- monitoring of respect of the citizens’ electoral rights 


Member of the Council, Human Rights Institute, International Bar Association (London) :

- organisation of seminars in Russia

1997, 1998

Visiting professor, “Open Society” Institutes of Kyrghyzstan and Uzbekistan:

- lectures on “human rights in the C.I.S.” and “human rights and islam” for the active members of the human rights organisations of the Central Asia


Member of the Council of Europe group of independent experts

- evaluation of the conformity of the Russian legislation in the field of human rights with the Council of Europe standards


Expert, Russian Foundation “Legal Reform”:

- project “Legal Culture”: educational programs on human rights through the mass-media


Expert and lecturer, Association of the indigenous peoples of the Northern Russia :

- seminars on legal protection of national minorities and indigenous peoples


Institute of Law and of Public Policy:

 - seminars for NGO members



Sakharov Human Rights Foundation:

- seminars on human rights protection



No public office, no elected posts, no posts held in a political party or a movement.



a. Social activities


Member of the Presidium, Association of Soviet Lawyers


President (1992-1999), Honorary President (since 2000), Association “Russia-France”


Founding Member, Humanitarian Centre « Strategy»


Founding Member, Discussion Club «Club 93»


Member, Moscow Lawyers Club

since 1999

Corresponding member of the International Academy of Comparative Law

since 2000

Member of the Board of Trustees, Institute of Law and Public Policy (Moscow)


Member of the Executive Committee of the International Association of Constitutional Law


b. Publishing and public education activities


Russian Educational Centre of Electoral Technologies:

- publication of the series of brochures for electors and elections’ actors


Central Electoral Commission of the Russian Federation:

- publication of electoral law manuals, organisation of seminars 


Lecturer of the Council of Europe seminars on the European Convention on Human Rights and case-law of the European Court in Saransk, Ulyanovsk, Ekaterinburg, Irkutsk, Saratov, Nizhni Novgorod, Kazan, Yakutsk, Saint-Petersburg, Perm, Russia)


Lecturer at the seminar of the Commission “Democracy Through Law” (Venice Commission) «Protection of fundamental rights and freedoms by means of individual complaint», Baku (Azerbaïdjan)


“Legal Centre Press” Publishing House (Saint-Petersburg):

- editing of translated works on European Convention on Human Rights and the case-law of the European Court 



Member of Editorial Board, “International Journal of Constitutional Law” (Washington, DC, USA)

since 2000

Member of Editorial Board, “Droit et Cultures” Review (France)

since 2000

Member of the Scientific Board, “Comparative Constitutional Review” (Moscow)

since 2002

“Nota Bene” Publishing House (Moscow):

- scientific guidance of the publications on law and human rights

since 2006

Member of the Editorial Board, “Human Rights. Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights” (Moscow)

since 2013

President of the Editorial Counсil, “ International Justice" Review (Moscow)


c. Expertise


Working groups of the Supreme Soviet, later of the State Duma of Russia, expert on draft laws (on political parties, on electoral rights, on associations, on citizenship etc.)


Expert, Constitutional Assembly on the new draft Constitution of Russia


Expert in respect of Russia, European Contact Group, Dayton Peace Talks on Bosnia:

- elaboration and expertise of the Constitution of Bosnia and electoral legislation

1992, 1993, 1998

Expert of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in particular cases before the Court


Expert of the Council of Europe:

- fact-finding mission to Serbia (enforcement of the ECHR judgments)


Expert of the «Open Government»

- drafts of laws’ expertise



8 monographs and about 200 scientific publications, including works of the last ten years (selected list):

- Anthropology of Law. Moscow. 2002, 467 p. (in Russian).                    

- European Convention on Human Rights and legal order in Russia.//Rivista internazionale dei diritti del’uomo. Milano, 2000, №2 (in Italian).

- Indigenous peoples in Russia: the right to a different legal status.//Le droit à la différence. Aix-Marseille, 2002 (in French).

- European Convention on Human Rights: its application toward the indigenous peoples.//Custom and Law. Moscow, 2002 (in Russian).

- Constitutional order in the C.I.S. states in the light of the European Convention on Human Rights.// La Réinvention de l’Etat. Démocratie politique et ordre juridique en Europe centrale et orientale. Bruxelles, 2003 (in French).

- Problems of the international law in the decisions of the European Court (legal capacity of the individual and state immunity).//Yearbook of the International Law Association. Saint-Petersburg, 2003 (in Russian).

- Death penalty and case-law of the European Court of Human Rights.//L’impact des décisions de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’homme sur l’activité des cours constitutionnelles est-européennes. Clermont-Ferrand, 2003 (in French).

- Right to a fair trial in the judgements of the European Court.//Protection of fundamental fights and freedoms by means of individual complaint. Baku (in Russian, English and Azerbaijani).

- European Convention on Human Rights and its impact on the legal order in Russia.//The Russian Constitution, 1993-2003. Uppsala, Sweden.,2003 (in Russian and English).

- Anthropology of Law and Legal Pluralism (human rights and rights of peoples in the context of legal pluralism).//Man and Environment. Moscow-Saint-Petersburg, 2003 (in Russian).

- Terrorism and human rights. Rome, 2005 (in Italian).

- Individual as a subject of the international law//International Law of XXI century. Kiev, 2007 (in Russian, Ukrainian and English).

- Human Rights in a Contemporary Society and European Values: Critique of Eurocentrism//EU-Russian Papers. Tallinn-Tartu (Estonia), 2011.

- International Protection Mechanism of Indigenous Peoples//Arctic Governance, Finland-Greenland, 2012, 16 p.

- Limits of interpretation of the notion “restitution of rights” (Article 18 of the European Convention)//Human Rights (Moscow), no.2, 2012 (in Russian).

- La Cour Européenne des droits de l' homme face à la souveraineté d' État//L'Europe en Formation. 2013, no.368, summer 2013.

- La place de la doctrine dans les délibérations//La Cour Européenne et la doctrine. Paris, Pedone, 2013.

 - Elective franchise and its selective interpretation// Human Rights Review. 2013, no.10 (in Russian and English).

- Articles on the ECHR in scientific reviews and books published in 2014-2016.



Russian – native

French, English, Italian – fluent

Turkish, German, Spanish – reading

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