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Main reference documents of the Venice Commission

I. Functioning of democratic institutions


  • Protection of children's rights: international standards and domestic institutions - CDL-AD(2014)005
  • Stocktaking on the notion of “good governance” and “good administration” CDL-AD(2011)009
  • Constitutional provisions on amendments of the constitution CDL-AD(2010)001
  • Constitutional implications of the ratification of the statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) CDL-INF(2001)001


Rule of law
State formation

*  *  *

  • Role of Extra-Institutional Actors in the Democratic System (Lobbying) - CDL-AD(2013)011

  • Restrictions on freedom of expression and freedom of association of judges – CDL-AD(2015)018
  • Implementation of international human rights treaties in domestic law and the role of courts - CDL-AD(2014)036
  • Independence of the judicial system – Part I (judges) CDL-AD(2010)004
  • Independence of the judicial system – Part II (the prosecution service) CDL-AD(2010)040
  • Judicial appointments CDL-AD(2007)028
  • Remedies to excessive length of proceedings CDL-AD(2006)036rev
  • Execution of judgments of the European Court of Human Rights CDL-AD(2002)034
Constitutional justice
  • Principles on the protection and promotion of the ombudsman institution - "The Venice Principles" - CDL-AD(2019)005

II. Protection of fundamental rights
Security, terrorism and human rights
Fundamental freedoms 
Minority rights 
  • Dual voting for persons belonging to national minorities - CDL-AD(2008)013
  • Electoral rules and affirmative action for national minorities' participation in decision-making process in European countries - CDL-AD(2005)009
  • Preferential treatment of kin-minorities by their kin-state - CDL-INF(2001)019
  • Participation of minorities in public life (“Science and technique of democracy” series, No. 45) - CDL-STD(2011)045
III. Elections, referendums and political parties
Code of good practice in electoral matters and its interpretative declarations 
  • Code of good practice in electoral matters CDL-AD(2002)023rev2-cor
  • Stability of the electoral law – interpretative declaration CDL-AD(2005)043
  • Women's participation in elections – interpretative declaration CDL-AD(2006)020
  • Participation of persons with disabilities in elections – interpretative declaration CDL-AD(2011)045
  • Publication of lists of voters having participated in elections - interpretative declaration CDL-AD(2016)028
Electoral process
Synthesis documents 
  • Measures to improve the democratic nature of elections in Council of Europe member states - CDL-AD(2012)005
  • Timeline and inventory of political criteria for assessing an election - CDL-AD(2010)037
  • Electoral law and electoral administration in Europe – synthesis study on recurrent challenges and problematic issues - CDL-AD(2020)023, CDL-AD(2006)018 
  • Europe's electoral heritage -  CDL(2002)007rev

Specific issues

  • Election dispute resolution - CDL-AD(2020)025 
  • Recall of mayors and local elected representatives - CDL-AD(2019)011rev   
  • Term Limits: Part I - Presidents - CDL-AD(2018)010
  • Term Limits: Part II - Members of Parliament; Part III - Representatives and executive officials elected at sub national and local level - CDL-AD(2019)007
  • Identification of electoral irregularities by statistical methods  - CDL-AD(2018)009 
  • Preventing and responding to the misuse of administrative resources during electoral processes: Report - CDL-AD(2013)033; Guidelines: CDL-AD(2016)004
  • Democracy, limitation of mandates and incompatibility of political  functions - CDL-AD(2012)027rev
  • Funding of electoral campaigns – opinion on the need for a code of good practice -  CDL-AD(2011)020
  • Imperative mandate and similar practices - CDL-AD(2009)027
  • Choosing the date of an election - CDL-AD(2007)037
Electoral systems
  • Constituency delineation and seat allocation - CDL-AD(2017)034
  • Proportional electoral systems: the allocation of seats inside the lists (open/closed lists) - CDL-AD(2015)001
  • Thresholds and other features of electoral systems which bar parties from access to Parliament – comparative report (I) CDL-AD(2008)037 and report (II) CDL-AD(2010)007
  • Electoral systems – overview of available solutions and selection criteria - CDL-AD(2004)003

Digital technologies

Right to vote 
Affirmative action and similar measures
  • Impact of electoral systems on women’s representation in politics - CDL-AD(2009)029
  • Declaration on women’s participation in elections - CDL-AD(2006)020
National minorities 
  • Dual voting for persons belonging to national minorities - CDL-AD(2008)013
  • Electoral rules and affirmative action for national minorities’ participation in decision-making process in European countries - CDL-AD(2005)009
  • Electoral law and national minorities - CDL-INF(2000)004

Political parties


  • Guidelines on political party regulation - Second edition - CDL-AD(2020)032  
  • Method of nomination of candidates in political parties – CDL-AD(2015)020
  • Political party regulation - Guidelines - CDL-AD(2010)024
  • Code of Good Practice in the Field of Political Parties - CDL-AD(2009)021
  • Prohibition of financial contributions to political parties from foreign sources - CDL-AD(2006)014
  • Participation of political parties in elections - CDL-AD(2006)025
  • Legislation on political parties: some specific issues - Guidelines and explanatory report - CDL-AD(2004)007rev
  • Financing of political parties - Guidelines and report - CDL-INF(2001)008
  • Prohibition and dissolution of political parties and analogous measures - Guidelines - CDL-INF(2000)001

Election observation and assessment 

  • Declaration of Global Principles for non-partisan election observation and monitoring by citizen organizations and Code of Conduct for non-partisan citizen election observers and monitors -  Initiated by the Global Network of Domestic Election Monitors (GNDEM)  - CDL-AD(2012)018
  • Timeline and inventory of political criteria for assessing an election - CDL-AD(2010)037
  • Figure based management of possible election fraud - CDL-AD(2010)043
  • Cancellation of election results - CDL-STD(2010)048
  • Guidelines on an internationally recognised status of election observers - CDL-AD(2009)059
  • Guidelines on Media Analysis during Election Observation Missions - CDL-AD(2009)031
  • Internationally recognised status of election observers - Summary of Recommendations - CDL-AD(2009)026
  • Internationally recognised status of election observers - report - CDL-AD(2009)020rev
  • Declaration of Principles for International Election Observation and Code of Conduct for International Election Observers and Pledge to accompany the Code of Conduct for International Election Observers prepared by the United Nations Electoral Assistance Division (UNEAD), the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), and the Carter Center (TCC) - CDL-AD(2005)036
  • Election Evaluation Guide - CDL-AD(2006)021
  • Election Observation Form - CDL-AD(2005)013
  • Electoral Glossary: English – French - CDL-PI(2020)021-bil

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