For democracy through law -
The Venice Commission of the Council of Europe
The European Commission for Democracy through Law - better known as the Venice Commission as it meets in Venice - is the Council of Europe's advisory body on constitutional matters.
The role of the Venice Commission is to provide legal advice to its member states and, in particular, to help states wishing to bring their legal and institutional structures into line with European standards and international experience in the fields of democracy, human rights and the rule of law.
It also helps to ensure the dissemination and consolidation of a common constitutional heritage, playing a unique role in conflict management, and provides “emergency constitutional aid” to states in transition.
The Commission has 61 member states: the 47 Council of Europe member states, plus 14 other countries (Algeria, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Israel, Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Mexico, Peru, Tunisia and the USA). The European Commission and OSCE/ODIHR participate in the plenary sessions of the Commission.
Its individual members are university professors of public and international law, supreme and constitutional court judges, members of national parliaments and a number of civil servants. They are designated for four years by the member states, but act in their individual capacity. Gianni Buquicchio has been President of the Commission since December 2009.
The Commission works in three areas:
• democratic institutions and fundamental rights
• constitutional justice and ordinary justice
• elections, referendums and political parties.
The Commission shares the standards and best practices adopted within the countries of the Council of Europe beyond its borders notably in neighboring countries.
Its permanent secretariat is located in Strasbourg, France, at the headquarters of the Council of Europe. Its plenary sessions are held in Venice, Italy, at the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista, four times a year (March, June, October and December).
• Established in May 1990 by 18 Council of Europe Member States
• Since 2016: 61 member states, including 13 non-European members and Kosovo, with a total population of more than 3 billion people
• 5 observer countries and 1 associate member
• 2 countries with a special cooperation status
• EU and OSCE – the two international partners participating in the work of the Commission
• more than 500 opinions on more than 50 countries and 90 studies
• 350 seminars and conferences with courts and universities
• Over 3,000 civil servants trained in human rights and administrative law in Central nd Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Maghreb ciountries;
• the European Court of Human Rights has referred to Venice Commission opinions in 145 judgments and 40 decisions (since 2002) and directly requested the Commission 6 amicus curiae briefs (since 2005).
1 Council of Europe has 47 member States: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, ”The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.
 Request for opinion may be sent to the President or the Secretary of the Commission by email / fax / post.