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World Conference on Constitutional Justice
 
 

The Bureau of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice accepted the offer by the Constitutional Court of Lithuania to host the 4th Congress in Vilnius on 11-14 September 2017.


The World Conference on Constitutional Justice unites 98 Constitutional Courts and Councils and Supreme Courts in Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe. It promotes constitutional justice – understood as constitutional review including human rights case-law – as a key element for democracy, the protection of human rights and the rule of law (Article 1.2 of the Statute).
 

The World Conference pursues its objectives through the organisation of regular congresses, by participating in regional conferences and seminars, by sharing experiences and case-law and by offering good services to members on their request (Article 1.2 of the Statute).
 

The main purpose of the World Conference is to facilitate judicial dialogue between constitutional judges on a global scale. Due to the obligation of judicial restraint, constitutional judges sometimes have little occasion to conduct a constructive dialogue on constitutional principles in their countries. The exchanges that take place between judges from various parts of the world in the World Conference furthers reflection on arguments, which promote the basic goals inherent to national constitutions. Even if these texts often differ substantially, discussion on the underlying constitutional concepts unites constitutional judges from various parts of the world committed to promoting constitutionality in their own country.
 

As these judges sometimes find themselves in situations of conflict with other state powers because of decisions they had to hand down based on the Constitution, being part of the World Conference provides them with a forum that not only allows them to exchange information freely with their peers, but where judges from other countries can also offer moral support. This can be important in upholding constitutional principles, which the judges are called upon to defend in their line of work.
 

The Courts and Councils, members of and committed to the principles of the World Conference may see their membership suspended by the General Assembly of the World Conference in case of flagrant violation of these principles.
 

The following Courts or Councils have given written notification about their accession to the Venice Commission, which acts as the Secretariat of the World Conference (status 30 November 2015):

1.    Albania, Constitutional Court
2.    Algeria, Constitutional Council
3.    Andorra, Constitutional Court
4.    Angola, Constitutional Court
5.    Armenia, Constitutional Court
6.    Australia, High Court new
7.    Austria, Constitutional Court
8.    Azerbaijan, Constitutional Court
9.    Bahrain, Constitutional Court
10.    Belarus, Constitutional Court
11.    Belgium, Constitutional Court
12.    Benin, Constitutional Court
13.    Bosnia and Herzegovina, Constitutional Court
14.    Brazil, Federal Supreme Court
15.    Bulgaria, Constitutional Court
16.    Burkina Faso, Constitutional Council
17.    Burundi, Constitutional Court
18.    Cambodia, Constitutional Council
19.    Cameroun, Supreme Court
20.    Canada, Supreme Court new
21.    Chad, Constitutional Council
22.    Chile, Constitutional Court
23.    Colombia, Constitutional Court
24.    Comoros, Constitutional Court
25.    Congo (Brazzaville), Constitutional Court
26.    Congo, Democratic Republic, Constitutional Court
27.    Costa Rica, Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
28.    Côte d'Ivoire, Constitutional Council
29.    Croatia, Constitutional Court
30.    Cyprus, Supreme Court
31.    Czech Republic, Constitutional Court
32.    Denmark, Supreme Court
33.    Dominican Republic, Constitutional Court
34.    Ecuador, Constitutional Court
35.    Egypt, Supreme Constitutional Court
36.    Estonia, Supreme Court
37.    Finland, Supreme Administrative Court
38.    France, Constitutional Council
39.    Gabon, Constitutional Court
40.    Georgia, Constitutional Court
41.    Germany, Federal Constitutional Court
42.    Ghana, Supreme Court
43.    Hungary, Constitutional Court
44.    Indonesia, Constitutional Court
45.    Israel, Supreme Court
46.    Italy, Constitutional Court
47.    Jordan, Constitutional Court
48.    Kazakhstan, Constitutional Council
49.    Korea, Republic, Constitutional Court
50.    Kosovo, Constitutional Court
51.    Kuwait, Constitutional Court
52.    Kyrgyzstan, Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
53.    Latvia, Constitutional Court
54.    Lithuania, Constitutional Court
55.    Lebanon, Constitutional Council
56.    Macedonia, Constitutional Court
57.    Madagascar, High Constitutional Court
58.    Mali, Constitutional Court
59.    Mauritania, Constitutional Council
60.    Mauritius, Supreme Court
61.    Mexico, Supreme Court
62.    Mexico, Electoral Court of the Federal Judiciary new
63.    Moldova, Constitutional Court
64.    Mongolia, Constitutional Court
65.    Montenegro, Constitutional Court
66.    Morocco, Constitutional Council
67.    Mozambique, Constitutional Council
68.    Netherlands, Council of State
69.    Netherlands, Supreme Court
70.    Nicaragua, Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
71.    Niger, Constitutional Court
72.    Norway, Supreme Court
73.    Pakistan, Supreme Court
74.    Peru, Constitutional Court
75.    Poland, Constitutional Tribunal
76.    Portugal, Constitutional Court
77.    Romania, Constitutional Court
78.    Russia, Constitutional Court
79.    Samoa, Supreme Court
80.    São Tomé and Príncipe, Supreme Court
81.    Senegal, Constitutional Council
82.    Serbia, Constitutional Court
83.    Seychelles, Supreme Court
84.    Slovakia, Constitutional Court
85.    Slovenia, Constitutional Court
86.    South Africa, Constitutional Court
87.    Spain, Constitutional Court
88.    Sweden, Supreme Administrative Court
89.    Switzerland, Federal Court
90.    Tajikistan, Constitutional Court
91.    Tanzania, Court of Appeal
92.    Thailand, Constitutional Court
93.    Togo, Constitutional Court
94.    Turkey, Constitutional Court
95.    Uganda, Supreme Court
96.    Ukraine, Constitutional Court
97.    Uzbekistan, Constitutional Court
98.    Zambia, Supreme Court

History of the World Conference:

 

Since 1996, the Venice Commission has established co-operation with a number of regional or language based groups of constitutional courts, in particular the Conference of European Constitutional Courts, the Association of Constitutional Courts using the French Language, the Southern African Judges Commission, the Conference of Constitutional Control Organs of Countries of New Democracy, the Association of Asian Constitutional Courts and Equivalent Institutions, the Union of Arab Constitutional Courts and Councils, the Ibero-American Conference of Constitutional Justice and the Conference of Constitutional Jurisdictions of Africa.
 

In pursuit of the goal of uniting these groups and their members, the Venice Commission had organised a Congress of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice for the first time, held in Cape Town, South Africa on 23-24 January 2009 and hosted by the Constitutional Court of South Africa. This event gathered 9 regional or linguistic groups and some 90 courts.
 

On the basis of a declaration adopted at this occasion, the Venice Commission assisted a Bureau in the establishment of the World Conference as a permanent body. At their first meeting in Mexico, in April 2009, the Bureau prepared a draft statute, which was discussed at other meetings of the Bureau on 12 December 2009 and 5 June 2010 in Venice together with questions of the organisation of a second Congress.
 

Eighty-eight Constitutional Courts, Constitutional Councils and Supreme Courts as well as the 10 regional and linguistic groups of courts from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe gathered for a second Congress of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice on the topic "Separation of Powers and Independence of Constitutional Courts and Equivalent Bodies". This event was hosted by the Federal Supreme Court of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 16-18 January 2011 in co-operation with the Venice Commission.

The draft statute was amended on this occasion and finally adopted at another meeting of the Bureau on 23 May 2011 on the occasion of the XVth Congress of the Conference of European Constitutional Courts.
 

With the accession of more than 30 Constitutional Courts, Constitutional Councils and Supreme Courts exercising constitutional justice, the Statute of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice entered into force on 24 September 2011.

The 3rd Congress of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice on the topic ‘Constitutional Justice and Social Integration’ was hosted by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Korea on 28 September – 1 October 2014. The participants of the 3rd Congress of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice adopted the Seoul Communiqué.

The congress examined how constitutional courts have dealt with social integration and – in its absence – with social conflict. The participating judges were able to draw inspiration from the experience of their peers, whether from positive examples or from cases where the courts were unable to solve these issues.

In addition to the 1st General Assembly of the World Conference, a stock-taking exercise took place during the 3rd Congress on the independence of the constitutional courts.

 

 

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